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66
Lossy Source Coding
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 1998
"... Lossy coding of speech, highquality audio, still images, and video is commonplace today. However, in 1948, few lossy compression systems were in service. Shannon introduced and developed the theory of source coding with a fidelity criterion, also called ratedistortion theory. For the first 25 year ..."
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Cited by 104 (1 self)
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Lossy coding of speech, highquality audio, still images, and video is commonplace today. However, in 1948, few lossy compression systems were in service. Shannon introduced and developed the theory of source coding with a fidelity criterion, also called ratedistortion theory. For the first 25 years of its existence, ratedistortion theory had relatively little impact on the methods and systems actually used to compress real sources. Today, however, ratedistortion theoretic concepts are an important component of many lossy compression techniques and standards. We chronicle the development of ratedistortion theory and provide an overview of its influence on the practice of lossy source coding. Index TermsData compression, image coding, speech coding, rate distortion theory, signal coding, source coding with a fidelity criterion, video coding. I.
Compression of Multispectral Images by ThreeDimensional SPIHT Algorithm
 IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
, 2000
"... We carry out low bitrate compression of multispectral images by means of the Said and Pearlman's SPIHT algorithm, suitably modified to take into account the interband dependencies. Two techniques are proposed: in the first, a threedimensional (3D) transform is taken (wavelet in the spatial d ..."
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Cited by 61 (3 self)
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We carry out low bitrate compression of multispectral images by means of the Said and Pearlman's SPIHT algorithm, suitably modified to take into account the interband dependencies. Two techniques are proposed: in the first, a threedimensional (3D) transform is taken (wavelet in the spatial domain, KarhunenLoeve in the spectral domain) and a simple 3D SPIHT is used; in the second, after taking a spatial wavelet transform, spectral vectors of pixels are vector quantized and a gaindriven SPIHT is used. Numerous experiments on two sample multispectral images show very good performance for both algorithms.
Biorthogonal and nonuniform lapped transforms for transform coding with reduced blocking and ringing artifacts
 IEEE Trans. Signal Processing
, 1998
"... New lapped transforms are introduced. The LBT (lapped biorthogonal transform), and HLBT (hierarchical lapped biorthogonal transform) are appropriate for image coding, and the MLBT (modulated lapped biorthogonal transform) and NMLBT (nonuniform modulated lapped biorthogonal transform) are appropriat ..."
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Cited by 51 (8 self)
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New lapped transforms are introduced. The LBT (lapped biorthogonal transform), and HLBT (hierarchical lapped biorthogonal transform) are appropriate for image coding, and the MLBT (modulated lapped biorthogonal transform) and NMLBT (nonuniform modulated lapped biorthogonal transform) are appropriate for audio coding. The HLBT has a significantly lower computational complexity than the LOT (lapped orthogonal transform), essentially no blocking artifacts, and less ringing artifacts than the commonlyused DCT (discrete cosine transform). The LBT and HLBT have transform coding gains that are typically between 0.5 and 1.2 dB higher than that of the DCT. Image coding examples using JPEG and embedded zerotree coders demonstrate the better performance of the LBT and HLBT. The NMLBT has less ringing artifacts and better reproduction of transient sounds than the MLT, as shown in audio coding examples. Fast algorithms for both the HLBT and the NMLBT are presented. EDICS: 2.4.3 – Filter Bank Design and Implementation Permission to publish this abstract separately is granted. I.
A Progressive Transmission Image Coder Using Linear Phase Uniform Filterbanks as Block Transforms
, 1999
"... This paper presents a novel image coding scheme using Mchannel linear phase perfect reconstruction filterbanks (LPPRFB's) in the embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) framework introduced by Shapiro [1]. The innovation here is to replace the EZW's dyadic wavelet transform by Mchannel unifor ..."
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Cited by 46 (22 self)
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This paper presents a novel image coding scheme using Mchannel linear phase perfect reconstruction filterbanks (LPPRFB's) in the embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) framework introduced by Shapiro [1]. The innovation here is to replace the EZW's dyadic wavelet transform by Mchannel uniformband maximally decimated LPPRFB's, which offer finer frequency spectrum partitioning and higher energy compaction. The transform stage can now be implemented as a block transform which supports parallel processing mode and facilitates regionof interest coding/decoding. For hardware implementation, the transform boasts efficient lattice structures, which employ a minimal number of delay elements and are robust under the quantization of lattice coefficients. The resulted compression algorithm also retains all attractive properties of the EZW coder and its variations such as progressive image transmission, embedded quantization, exact bit rate control, and idempotency. Despite its simplicity, our new coder outperforms some of the best image coders published recently in literature [1][4], for almost all test images (especially natural, hardtocode ones) at almost all bit rates.
A comparative study of DCT and waveletbased image coding
 IEEE Trans. CSVT
, 1999
"... Abstract—We undertake a study of the performance difference of the discrete cosine transform (DCT) and the wavelet transform for both image and video coding, while comparing other aspects of the coding system on an equal footing based on the stateoftheart coding techniques. Our studies reveal that ..."
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Cited by 29 (0 self)
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Abstract—We undertake a study of the performance difference of the discrete cosine transform (DCT) and the wavelet transform for both image and video coding, while comparing other aspects of the coding system on an equal footing based on the stateoftheart coding techniques. Our studies reveal that, for still images, the wavelet transform outperforms the DCT typically by the order of about 1 dB in peak signaltonoise ratio. For video coding, the advantage of wavelet schemes is less obvious. We believe that the image and video compression algorithm should be addressed from the overall system viewpoint: quantization, entropy coding, and the complex interplay among elements of the coding system are more important than spending all the efforts on optimizing the transform. Index Terms—Discrete cosine transform (DCT), image coding, video coding, wavelet transform. I.
Fast progressive image coding without wavelets
 Data Compression Conference (DCC
, 2000
"... We introduce a new image compression algorithm that allows progressive image reconstruction – both in resolution and in fidelity, with a fully embedded bitstream. The algorithm is based on bitplane entropy coding of reordered transform coefficients, similar to the progressive wavelet codec (PWC) pr ..."
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Cited by 29 (2 self)
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We introduce a new image compression algorithm that allows progressive image reconstruction – both in resolution and in fidelity, with a fully embedded bitstream. The algorithm is based on bitplane entropy coding of reordered transform coefficients, similar to the progressive wavelet codec (PWC) previously introduced. Unlike PWC, however, our new progressive transform coder (PTC) does not use wavelets; it performs the spacefrequency decomposition step via a new lapped biorthogonal transform (LBT). PTC achieves a rate vs. distortion performance that is comparable (within 2%) to that of the stateoftheart SPIHT (set partitioning in hierarchical trees) codec. However, thanks to the use of the LBT, the spacefrequency decomposition step in PTC reduces the number of multiplications per pixel by a factor of 2.7, and the number of additions by about 15%, when compared to the fastest possible implementation of the “9/7 ” wavelet transform via lifting. Furthermore, since most of the computation in the LBT is in fact performed by a DCT, our PTC codec can make full use of fast software and hardware modules for 1D and 2D DCTs. 1.
Rate control for an embedded wavelet video coder
 IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
, 1997
"... Abstract—Embedded coders provide a better ratedistortion tradeoff while the coded bit stream can be truncated at any point without a significant perceptible distortion. In this work, we investigate rate control for an embedded wavelet video coder by converting the rate control problem to a bit allo ..."
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Cited by 28 (3 self)
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Abstract—Embedded coders provide a better ratedistortion tradeoff while the coded bit stream can be truncated at any point without a significant perceptible distortion. In this work, we investigate rate control for an embedded wavelet video coder by converting the rate control problem to a bit allocation problem for each frame. Then, a computationally efficient rate control algorithm is derived by exploiting the ratedistortion performance of the embedded wavelet coder and the frame dependency between the reference frame and the predictive frame. Experiments are performed to demonstrate the superior performance of the embedded wavelet video coder with the proposed rate control scheme. It is shown that the proposed rate control strategy outperforms the fixed allocation rate control by 0.1–0.4 dB for a variety of sequences, and the performance gain can be as large as 1.3–2.7 dB around scene changes. Index Terms — Embedded coding, MPEG, multimedia, rate control, video coding, video compression, wavelet transform.
TreeStructured Compressive Sensing with Variational Bayesian Analysis
, 2009
"... In compressive sensing (CS) the known structure in the transform coefficients may be leveraged to improve reconstruction accuracy. We here develop a hierarchical statistical model applicable to both wavelet and JPEGbased DCT bases, in which the tree structure in the sparseness pattern is exploited ..."
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Cited by 26 (5 self)
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In compressive sensing (CS) the known structure in the transform coefficients may be leveraged to improve reconstruction accuracy. We here develop a hierarchical statistical model applicable to both wavelet and JPEGbased DCT bases, in which the tree structure in the sparseness pattern is exploited explicitly. The analysis is performed efficiently via variational Bayesian (VB) analysis, and comparisons are made with MCMCbased inference, and with many of the CS algorithms in the literature. Performance is assessed for both noisefree and noisy CS measurements, based on both JPEGDCT and wavelet representations.
Digital Image Source Coder Forensics Via Intrinsic Fingerprints
, 2009
"... Recent development in multimedia processing and network technologies has facilitated the distribution and sharing of multimedia through networks, and increased the security demands of multimedia contents. Traditional image content protection schemes use extrinsic approaches, such as watermarking or ..."
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Cited by 21 (6 self)
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Recent development in multimedia processing and network technologies has facilitated the distribution and sharing of multimedia through networks, and increased the security demands of multimedia contents. Traditional image content protection schemes use extrinsic approaches, such as watermarking or fingerprinting. However, under many circumstances, extrinsic content protection is not possible. Therefore, there is great interest in developing forensic tools via intrinsic fingerprints to solve these problems. Source coding is a common step of natural image acquisition, so in this paper, we focus on the fundamental research on digital image source coder forensics via intrinsic fingerprints. First, we investigate the unique intrinsic fingerprint of many popular image source encoders, including transformbased coding (both discrete cosine transform and discrete wavelet transform based), subband coding, differential image coding, and also block processing as the traces of evidence. Based on the intrinsic fingerprint of image source encoders, we construct an image source coding forensic detector that identifies which source encoder is applied, what the coding parameters are along with confidence measures of the result. Our simulation results show that the proposed system provides trustworthy performance: for most test cases, the probability of detecting the correct source encoder is over 90%.
Lapped biorthogonal transforms for transform coding with reduced blocking and ringing artifacts
 Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing
, 1997
"... (Note: this is a corrected version, with a corrected Fig. 4 and PSNR values) Two new lapped transforms are introduced: the LBT (lapped biorthogonal transform) and the HLBT (hierarchical lapped biorthogonal transform). The LBT has the same computational complexity of the LOT (lapped orthogonal transf ..."
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Cited by 21 (4 self)
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(Note: this is a corrected version, with a corrected Fig. 4 and PSNR values) Two new lapped transforms are introduced: the LBT (lapped biorthogonal transform) and the HLBT (hierarchical lapped biorthogonal transform). The LBT has the same computational complexity of the LOT (lapped orthogonal transform), with much less blocking artifacts. The HLBT has a significantly lower computational complexity than the LOT, essentially no blocking artifacts, and less ringing artifacts than the commonlyused DCT (discrete cosine transform). The LBT and HLBT have a transform coding gain that is typically between 0.5 and 1.2 dB higher than that of the DCT. Image coding examples using JPEG and embedded zerotree coders demonstrate the better performance of the LBT and HLBT. 1.