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215
Animation and Rendering of Complex Water Surfaces
, 2002
"... We present a new method for the animation and rendering of photorealistic water effects. Our method is designed to produce visually plausible three dimensional effects, for example the pouring of water into a glass (see figure 1) and the breaking of an ocean wave, in a manner which can be used in a ..."
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Cited by 274 (22 self)
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We present a new method for the animation and rendering of photorealistic water effects. Our method is designed to produce visually plausible three dimensional effects, for example the pouring of water into a glass (see figure 1) and the breaking of an ocean wave, in a manner which can be used in a computer animation environment. In order to better obtain photorealism in the behavior of the simulated water surface, we introduce a new "thickened" front tracking technique to accurately represent the water surface and a new velocity extrapolation method to move the surface in a smooth, waterlike manner. The velocity extrapolation method allows us to provide a degree of control to the surface motion, e.g. to generate a windblown look or to force the water to settle quickly. To ensure that the photorealism of the simulation carries over to the final images, we have integrated our method with an advanced physically based rendering system.
Simulating Water and Smoke with an Octree Data Structure
, 2004
"... We present a method for simulating water and smoke on an unrestricted octree data structure exploiting mesh refinement techniques to capture the small scale visual detail. We propose a new technique for discretizing the Poisson equation on this octree grid. The resulting linear system is symmetric ..."
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Cited by 210 (18 self)
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We present a method for simulating water and smoke on an unrestricted octree data structure exploiting mesh refinement techniques to capture the small scale visual detail. We propose a new technique for discretizing the Poisson equation on this octree grid. The resulting linear system is symmetric positive definite enabling the use of fast solution methods such as preconditioned conjugate gradients, whereas the standard approximation to the Poisson equation on an octree grid results in a nonsymmetric linear system which is more computationally challenging to invert. The semiLagrangian characteristic tracing technique is used to advect the velocity, smoke density, and even the level set making implementation on an octree straightforward. In the case of smoke, we have multiple refinement criteria including object boundaries, optical depth, and vorticity concentration. In the case of water, we refine near the interface as determined by the zero isocontour of the level set function.
Animating sand as a fluid
 ACM Trans. Graph. (Proc. SIGGRAPH
, 2005
"... My thesis presents a physicsbased simulation method for animating sand. To allow for efficiently scaling up to large volumes of sand, we abstract away the individual grains and think of the sand as a continuum. In particular we show that an existing water simulator can be turned into a sand simulat ..."
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Cited by 128 (4 self)
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My thesis presents a physicsbased simulation method for animating sand. To allow for efficiently scaling up to large volumes of sand, we abstract away the individual grains and think of the sand as a continuum. In particular we show that an existing water simulator can be turned into a sand simulator within frictional regime with only a few small additions to account for intergrain and boundary friction, yet with visually acceptable result. We also propose an alternative method for simulating fluids. Our core representation is a cloud of particles, which allows for accurate and flexible surface tracking and advection, but we use an auxiliary grid to efficiently enforce boundary conditions and incompressibility. We further address the issue of reconstructing a surface from particle data to render each frame. ii Contents ii
Rigid fluid: Animating the interplay between rigid bodies and fluid
 ACM Trans. Graph
, 2004
"... Figure 1: A silver block catapulting some wooden blocks into an oncoming wall of water. We present the Rigid Fluid method, a technique for animating the interplay between rigid bodies and viscous incompressible fluid with free surfaces. We use distributed Lagrange multipliers to ensure twoway coupl ..."
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Cited by 126 (9 self)
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Figure 1: A silver block catapulting some wooden blocks into an oncoming wall of water. We present the Rigid Fluid method, a technique for animating the interplay between rigid bodies and viscous incompressible fluid with free surfaces. We use distributed Lagrange multipliers to ensure twoway coupling that generates realistic motion for both the solid objects and the fluid as they interact with one another. We call our method the rigid fluid method because the simulator treats the rigid objects as if they were made of fluid. The rigidity of such an object is maintained by identifying the region of the velocity field that is inside the object and constraining those velocities to be rigid body motion. The rigid fluid method is straightforward to implement, incurs very little computational overhead, and can be added as a bridge between current fluid simulators and rigid body solvers. Many solid objects of different densities (e.g., wood or lead) can be combined in the same animation.
A Fast and Accurate SemiLagrangian Particle Level Set Method
 COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES
, 2004
"... In this paper, we present an efficient semiLagrangian based particle level set method for the accurate capturing of interfaces. This method retains the robust topological properties of the level set method without the adverse effects of numerical dissipation. Both the level set method and the p ..."
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Cited by 83 (11 self)
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In this paper, we present an efficient semiLagrangian based particle level set method for the accurate capturing of interfaces. This method retains the robust topological properties of the level set method without the adverse effects of numerical dissipation. Both the level set method and the particle level set method typically use high order accurate numerical discretizations in time and space, e.g. TVD RungeKutta and HJWENO schemes. We demonstrate that these computationally expensive schemes are not required. Instead, fast, low order accurate numerical schemes suffice. That is, the addition of particles to the level set method not only removes the difficulties associated with numerical diffusion, but also alleviates the need for computationally expensive high order accurate schemes. We use an efficient, first order accurate semiLagrangian advection scheme coupled with a first order accurate fast marching method to evolve the level set function. To accurately track the underlying flow characteristics, the particles are evolved with a second order accurate method. Since we avoid complex high order accurate numerical methods, extending the algorithm to arbitrary data structures becomes more feasible, and we show preliminary results obtained with an octreebased adaptive mesh.
Spatially adaptive techniques for level set methods and incompressible flow
 Comput. Fluids
"... Since the seminal work of [92] on coupling the level set method of [69] to the equations for twophase incompressible flow, there has been a great deal of interest in this area. That work demonstrated the most powerful aspects of the level set method, i.e. automatic handling of topological changes ..."
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Cited by 73 (15 self)
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Since the seminal work of [92] on coupling the level set method of [69] to the equations for twophase incompressible flow, there has been a great deal of interest in this area. That work demonstrated the most powerful aspects of the level set method, i.e. automatic handling of topological changes such as merging and pinching, as well as robust geometric information such as normals and curvature. Interestingly, this work also demonstrated the largest weakness of the level set method, i.e. mass or information loss characteristic of most Eulerian capturing techniques. In fact, [92] introduced a partial differential equation for battling this weakness, without which their work would not have been possible. In this paper, we discuss both historical and most recent works focused on improving the computational accuracy of the level set method focusing in part on applications related to incompressible flow due to both its popularity and stringent accuracy requirements. Thus, we discuss higher order accurate numerical methods such as HamiltonJacobi WENO [46], methods for maintaining a signed distance function, hybrid methods such as the particle level set method [27] and the coupled level set volume of fluid method [91], and adaptive gridding techniques such as the octree approach to free surface flows proposed in [56].
ParticleBased Simulation of Fluids
, 2003
"... Due to our familiarity with how fluids move and interact, as well as their complexity, plausible animation of fluids remains a challenging problem. We present a particle interaction method for simulating fluids. The underlying equations of fluid motion are discretized using moving particles and th ..."
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Cited by 70 (0 self)
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Due to our familiarity with how fluids move and interact, as well as their complexity, plausible animation of fluids remains a challenging problem. We present a particle interaction method for simulating fluids. The underlying equations of fluid motion are discretized using moving particles and their interactions. The method allows simulation and modeling of mixing fluids with different physical properties, fluid interactions with stationary objects, and fluids that exhibit significant interface breakup and fragmentation. The gridless computational method is suited for medium scale problems since computational elements exist only where needed. The method fits well into the current user interaction paradigm and allows easy user control over the desired fluid motion.
A second order Coupled Level Set and VolumeofFluid Method for . . .
, 2002
"... We present a coupled Level Set / VolumeofFluid (CLSVOF) method for computing growth and collapse of vapor bubbles. The liquid is assumed incompressible and the vapor is assumed to have constant pressure in space. Second order algorithms are used for nding "mass conserving" extension vel ..."
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Cited by 66 (6 self)
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We present a coupled Level Set / VolumeofFluid (CLSVOF) method for computing growth and collapse of vapor bubbles. The liquid is assumed incompressible and the vapor is assumed to have constant pressure in space. Second order algorithms are used for nding "mass conserving" extension velocities, for discretizing the local interfacial curvature and also for the discretization of the cell centered projection step. Convergence studies are given that demonstrate this second order accuracy. Examples are provided that apply to cavitating bubbles.
An unconditionally stable MacCormack method
, 2006
"... The back and forth error compensation and correction (BFECC) method advects the solution forward and then backward in time. The result is compared to the original data to estimate the error. Although inappropriate for parabolic and other nonreversible partial differential equations, it is useful for ..."
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Cited by 64 (16 self)
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The back and forth error compensation and correction (BFECC) method advects the solution forward and then backward in time. The result is compared to the original data to estimate the error. Although inappropriate for parabolic and other nonreversible partial differential equations, it is useful for often troublesome advection terms. The error estimate is used to correct the data before advection raising the method to second order accuracy, even though each individual step is only first order accurate. In this paper, we rewrite the MacCormack method to illustrate that it estimates the error in the same exact fashion as BFECC. The difference is that the MacCormack method uses this error estimate to correct the already computed forward advected data. Thus, it does not require the third advection step in BFECC reducing the cost of the method while still obtaining second order accuracy in space and time. Recent work replaced each of the three BFECC advection steps with a simple first order accurate unconditionally stable semiLagrangian method yielding a second order accurate unconditionally stable BFECC scheme. We use a similar approach to create a second order accurate unconditionally stable MacCormack method.
A sharp interface method for incompressible twophase flows
, 2007
"... We present a sharp interface method for computing incompressible immiscible twophase flows. It couples the levelset and volumeoffluid techniques and retains their advantages while overcoming their weaknesses. It is stable and robust even for large density and viscosity ratios on the order of 100 ..."
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Cited by 45 (7 self)
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We present a sharp interface method for computing incompressible immiscible twophase flows. It couples the levelset and volumeoffluid techniques and retains their advantages while overcoming their weaknesses. It is stable and robust even for large density and viscosity ratios on the order of 1000 to 1. The numerical method is an extension of the secondorder method presented by Sussman [M. Sussman, A second order coupled levelset and volume of fluid method for computing growth and collapse of vapor bubbles, Journal of Computational Physics 187 (2003) 110–136] in which the previous method treated the gas pressure as spatially constant and the present method treats the gas as a second incompressible fluid. The new method yields solutions in the zero gas density limit which are comparable in accuracy to the method in which the gas pressure was treated as spatially constant. This improvement in accuracy allows one to compute accurate solutions on relatively coarse grids, thereby providing a speedup over continuum or "ghostfluid" methods.