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393
An Overview of Evolutionary Algorithms in Multiobjective Optimization
 Evolutionary Computation
, 1995
"... The application of evolutionary algorithms (EAs) in multiobjective optimization is currently receiving growing interest from researchers with various backgrounds. Most research in this area has understandably concentrated on the selection stage of EAs, due to the need to integrate vectorial performa ..."
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Cited by 487 (13 self)
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The application of evolutionary algorithms (EAs) in multiobjective optimization is currently receiving growing interest from researchers with various backgrounds. Most research in this area has understandably concentrated on the selection stage of EAs, due to the need to integrate vectorial performance measures with the inherently scalar way in which EAs reward individual performance, i.e., number of offspring. In this review, current multiobjective evolutionary approaches are discussed, ranging from the conventional analytical aggregation of the different objectives into a single function to a number of populationbased approaches and the more recent ranking schemes based on the definition of Paretooptimality. The sensitivity of different methods to
From recombination of genes to the estimation of distributions I. binary parameters
, 1996
"... The Breeder Genetic Algorithm (BGA) is based on the equation for the response to selection. In order to use this equation for prediction, the variance of the fitness of the population has to be estimated. For the usual sexual recombination the computation can be difficult. In this paper we shortly ..."
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Cited by 304 (9 self)
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The Breeder Genetic Algorithm (BGA) is based on the equation for the response to selection. In order to use this equation for prediction, the variance of the fitness of the population has to be estimated. For the usual sexual recombination the computation can be difficult. In this paper we shortly state the problem and investigate several modifications of sexual recombination. The first method is gene pool recombination, which leads to marginal distribution algorithms. In the last part of the paper we discuss more sophisticated methods, based on estimating the distribution of promising points.
Designing Efficient And Accurate Parallel Genetic Algorithms
, 1999
"... Parallel implementations of genetic algorithms (GAs) are common, and, in most cases, they succeed to reduce the time required to find acceptable solutions. However, the effect of the parameters of parallel GAs on the quality of their search and on their efficiency are not well understood. This insuf ..."
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Cited by 293 (5 self)
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Parallel implementations of genetic algorithms (GAs) are common, and, in most cases, they succeed to reduce the time required to find acceptable solutions. However, the effect of the parameters of parallel GAs on the quality of their search and on their efficiency are not well understood. This insufficient knowledge limits our ability to design fast and accurate parallel GAs that reach the desired solutions in the shortest time possible. The goal of this dissertation is to advance the understanding of parallel GAs and to provide rational guidelines for their design. The research reported here considered three major types of parallel GAs: simple masterslave algorithms with one population, more sophisticated algorithms with multiple populations, and a hierarchical combination of the first two types. The investigation formulated simple models that predict accurately the quality of the solutions with different parameter settings. The quality predictors were transformed into populationsizing equations, which in turn were used to estimate the execution time of the algorithms.
The Gambler's Ruin Problem, Genetic Algorithms, and the Sizing of Populations
, 1997
"... This paper presents a model for predicting the convergence quality of genetic algorithms. The model incorporates previous knowledge about decision making in genetic algorithms and the initial supply of building blocks in a novel way. The result is an equation that accurately predicts the quality of ..."
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Cited by 243 (91 self)
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This paper presents a model for predicting the convergence quality of genetic algorithms. The model incorporates previous knowledge about decision making in genetic algorithms and the initial supply of building blocks in a novel way. The result is an equation that accurately predicts the quality of the solution found by a GA using a given population size. Adjustments for different selection intensities are considered and computational experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. I. Introduction The size of the population in a genetic algorithm (GA) is a major factor in determining the quality of convergence. The question of how to choose an adequate population size for a particular domain is difficult and has puzzled GA practitioners for a long time. Hard questions are better approached using a divideandconquer strategy and the population sizing issue is no exception. In this case, we can identify two factors that influence convergence quality: the initial supply of build...
Linkage Learning via Probabilistic Modeling in the ECGA
, 1999
"... The goal of linkage learning, or building block identification, is the creation of a more effective genetic algorithm (GA). This paper explores the relationship between the linkagelearning problem and that of learning probability distributions over multivariate spaces. Herein, it is argued that th ..."
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Cited by 230 (4 self)
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The goal of linkage learning, or building block identification, is the creation of a more effective genetic algorithm (GA). This paper explores the relationship between the linkagelearning problem and that of learning probability distributions over multivariate spaces. Herein, it is argued that these problems are equivalent. Using a simple but effective approach to learning distributions, and by implication linkage, this paper reveals the existence of GAlike algorithms that are potentially orders of magnitude faster and more accurate than the simple GA. I. Introduction Linkage learning in genetic algorithms (GAs) is the identification of building blocks to be conserved under crossover. Theoretical studies have shown that if an effective linkagelearning GA were developed, it would hold significant advantages over the simple GA (2). Therefore, the task of developing such an algorithm has drawn significant attention. Past approaches to developing such an algorithm have focused on ev...
Tackling realcoded genetic algorithms: operators and tools for the behavioural analysis
 Arti Intelligence Reviews
, 1998
"... Abstract. Genetic algorithms play a significant role, as search techniques for handling complex spaces, in many fields such as artificial intelligence, engineering, robotic, etc. Genetic algorithms are based on the underlying genetic process in biological organisms and on the natural evolution prin ..."
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Cited by 189 (27 self)
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Abstract. Genetic algorithms play a significant role, as search techniques for handling complex spaces, in many fields such as artificial intelligence, engineering, robotic, etc. Genetic algorithms are based on the underlying genetic process in biological organisms and on the natural evolution principles of populations. These algorithms process a population of chromosomes, which represent search space solutions, with three operations: selection, crossover and mutation. Under its initial formulation, the search space solutions are coded using the binary alphabet. However, the good properties related with these algorithms do not stem from the use of this alphabet; other coding types have been considered for the representation issue, such as real coding, which would seem particularly natural when tackling optimization problems of parameters with variables in continuous domains. In this paper we review the features of realcoded genetic algorithms. Different models of genetic operators and some mechanisms available for studying the behaviour of this type of genetic algorithms are revised and compared. Key words: genetic algorithms, real coding, continuous search spaces Abbreviations: GAs – genetic algorithms; BCGA – binarycoded genetic algorithm; RCGA – realcoded genetic algorithm
A Sequential Niche Technique for Multimodal Function Optimization
 EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION
, 1993
"... A technique is described which allows unimodal function optimization methods to be extended to efficiently locate all optima of multimodal problems. We describe an algorithm based on a traditional genetic algorithm (GA). This involves iterating the GA, but uses knowledge gained during one iteration ..."
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Cited by 158 (2 self)
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A technique is described which allows unimodal function optimization methods to be extended to efficiently locate all optima of multimodal problems. We describe an algorithm based on a traditional genetic algorithm (GA). This involves iterating the GA, but uses knowledge gained during one iteration to avoid researching, on subsequent iterations, regions of problem space where solutions have already been found. This is achieved by applying a fitness derating function to the raw fitness function, so that fitness values are depressed in the regions of the problem space where solutions have already been found. Consequently, the likelihood of discovering a new solution on each iteration is dramatically increased. The technique may be used with various styles of GA, or with other optimization methods, such as simulated annealing. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated on a number of multimodal test functions. The technique is at least as fast as fitness sharing methods. It provi...
Genetic Algorithms, Tournament Selection, and the Effects of Noise
 Complex Systems
, 1995
"... Tournament selection is a useful and robust selection mechanism commonly used by genetic algorithms. The selection pressure of tournament selection directly varies with the tournament size  the more competitors, the higher the resulting selection pressure. This article develops a model, based on ..."
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Cited by 132 (14 self)
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Tournament selection is a useful and robust selection mechanism commonly used by genetic algorithms. The selection pressure of tournament selection directly varies with the tournament size  the more competitors, the higher the resulting selection pressure. This article develops a model, based on order statistics, that can be used to quantitatively predict the resulting selection pressure of a tournament of a given size. This model is used to predict the convergence rates of genetic algorithms utilizing tournament selection. While tournament selection is often used in conjunction with noisy (imperfect) fitness functions, little is understood about how the noise affects the resulting selection pressure. The model is extended to quantitatively predict the selection pressure for tournament selection utilizing noisy fitness functions. Given the tournament size and noise level of a noisy fitness function, the extended model is used to predict the resulting selection pressure of tournament...
SelfAdaptation in Genetic Algorithms
 Proceedings of the First European Conference on Artificial Life
, 1992
"... Within Genetic Algorithms (GAs) the mutation rate is mostly handled as a global, external parameter, which is constant over time or exogeneously changed over time. In this paper a new approach is presented, which transfers a basic idea from Evolution Strategies (ESs) to GAs. Mutation rates are chang ..."
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Cited by 127 (2 self)
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Within Genetic Algorithms (GAs) the mutation rate is mostly handled as a global, external parameter, which is constant over time or exogeneously changed over time. In this paper a new approach is presented, which transfers a basic idea from Evolution Strategies (ESs) to GAs. Mutation rates are changed into endogeneous items which are adapting during the search process. First experimental results are presented, which indicate that environment dependent selfadaptation of appropriate settings for the mutation rate is possible even for GAs. Furthermore, the reduction of the number of external parameters of a GA is seen as a first step towards achieving a problemdependent selfadaptation of the algorithm. Introduction Natural evolution has proven to be a powerful mechanism for emergence and improvement of the living beings on our planet by performing a randomized search in the space of possible DNAsequences. Due to this knowledge about the qualities of natural evolution, some resea...
The Equation for the Response to Selection and Its Use for Prediction
, 1997
"... The Breeder Genetic Algorithm (BGA) was designed according to the theories and methods used in the science of livestock breeding. The prediction of a breeding experiment is based on the response to selection (RS) equation. This equation relates the change in a population 's fitness to the stand ..."
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Cited by 118 (15 self)
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The Breeder Genetic Algorithm (BGA) was designed according to the theories and methods used in the science of livestock breeding. The prediction of a breeding experiment is based on the response to selection (RS) equation. This equation relates the change in a population 's fitness to the standard deviation of its fitness, as well as to the parameters selection intensity and realized heritability. In this paper the exact RS equation is derived for proportionate selection given an infinite population in linkage equilibrium. In linkage equilibrium the genotype frequencies are the product of the univariate marginal frequencies. The equation contains Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection as an approximation. The theorem shows that the response is approximately equal to the quotient of a quantity called additive genetic variance, VA , and the average fitness. We compare Mendelian twoparent recombination with genepool recombination, which belongs to a special class of genetic ...