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A review of feature selection techniques in bioinformatics. Bioinformatics
 Proceedings of LBM’07) Y Saeys
, 2007
"... Feature selection techniques have become an apparent need in many bioinformatics applications. In addition to the large pool of techniques that have already been developed in the machine learning and data mining fields, specific applications in bioinformatics have led to a wealth of newly proposed t ..."
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Cited by 337 (9 self)
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Feature selection techniques have become an apparent need in many bioinformatics applications. In addition to the large pool of techniques that have already been developed in the machine learning and data mining fields, specific applications in bioinformatics have led to a wealth of newly proposed techniques. In this paper, we make the interested reader aware of the possibilities of feature selection, providing a basic taxonomy of feature selection techniques, and discussing their use, variety and potential in a number of both common as well as upcoming bioinformatics applications. Companion website:
The positive false discovery rate: A Bayesian interpretation and the qvalue
 Annals of Statistics
, 2003
"... Multiple hypothesis testing is concerned with controlling the rate of false positives when testing several hypotheses simultaneously. One multiple hypothesis testing error measure is the false discovery rate (FDR), which is loosely defined to be the expected proportion of false positives among all s ..."
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Cited by 328 (8 self)
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Multiple hypothesis testing is concerned with controlling the rate of false positives when testing several hypotheses simultaneously. One multiple hypothesis testing error measure is the false discovery rate (FDR), which is loosely defined to be the expected proportion of false positives among all significant hypotheses. The FDR is especially appropriate for exploratory analyses in which one is interested in finding several significant results among many tests. In this work, we introduce a modified version of the FDR called the “positive false discovery rate ” (pFDR). We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the pFDR and investigate its statistical properties. When assuming the test statistics follow a mixture distribution, we show that the pFDR can be written as a Bayesian posterior probability and can be connected to classification theory. These properties remain asymptotically true under fairly general conditions, even under certain forms of dependence. Also, a new quantity called the “qvalue ” is introduced and investigated, which is a natural “Bayesian posterior pvalue, ” or rather the pFDR analogue of the pvalue.
Largescale simultaneous hypothesis testing: the choice of a null hypothesis
 JASA
, 2004
"... Current scientific techniques in genomics and image processing routinely produce hypothesis testing problems with hundreds or thousands of cases to consider simultaneously. This poses new difficulties for the statistician, but also opens new opportunities. In particular it allows empirical estimatio ..."
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Cited by 300 (15 self)
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Current scientific techniques in genomics and image processing routinely produce hypothesis testing problems with hundreds or thousands of cases to consider simultaneously. This poses new difficulties for the statistician, but also opens new opportunities. In particular it allows empirical estimation of an appropriate null hypothesis. The empirical null may be considerably more dispersed than the usual theoretical null distribution that would be used for any one case considered separately. An empirical Bayes analysis plan for this situation is developed, using a local version of the false discovery rate to examine the inference issues. Two genomics problems are used as examples to show the importance of correctly choosing the null hypothesis. Key Words: local false discovery rate, empirical Bayes, microarray analysis, empirical null hypothesis, unobserved covariates
A Shrinkage Approach to LargeScale Covariance Matrix Estimation and Implications for Functional Genomics
, 2005
"... ..."
An Empirical Bayes Approach to Inferring LargeScale Gene Association Networks
 BIOINFORMATICS
, 2004
"... Motivation: Genetic networks are often described statistically by graphical models (e.g. Bayesian networks). However, inferring the network structure offers a serious challenge in microarray analysis where the sample size is small compared to the number of considered genes. This renders many standar ..."
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Cited by 234 (6 self)
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Motivation: Genetic networks are often described statistically by graphical models (e.g. Bayesian networks). However, inferring the network structure offers a serious challenge in microarray analysis where the sample size is small compared to the number of considered genes. This renders many standard algorithms for graphical models inapplicable, and inferring genetic networks an “illposed” inverse problem. Methods: We introduce a novel framework for smallsample inference of graphical models from gene expression data. Specifically, we focus on socalled graphical Gaussian models (GGMs) that are now frequently used to describe gene association networks and to detect conditionally dependent genes. Our new approach is based on (i) improved (regularized) smallsample point estimates of partial correlation, (ii) an exact test of edge inclusion with adaptive estimation of the degree of freedom, and (iii) a heuristic network search based on false discovery rate multiple testing. Steps (ii) and (iii) correspond to an empirical Bayes estimate of the network topology. Results: Using computer simulations we investigate the sensitivity (power) and specificity (true negative rate) of the proposed framework to estimate GGMs from microarray data. This shows that it is possible to recover the true network topology with high accuracy even for smallsample data sets. Subsequently, we analyze gene expression data from a breast cancer tumor study and illustrate our approach by inferring a corresponding largescale gene association network for 3,883 genes. Availability: The authors have implemented the approach in the R package “GeneTS ” that is freely available from
Adapting to unknown sparsity by controlling the false discovery rate
, 2000
"... We attempt to recover a highdimensional vector observed in white noise, where the vector is known to be sparse, but the degree of sparsity is unknown. We consider three different ways of defining sparsity of a vector: using the fraction of nonzero terms; imposing powerlaw decay bounds on the order ..."
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Cited by 182 (23 self)
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We attempt to recover a highdimensional vector observed in white noise, where the vector is known to be sparse, but the degree of sparsity is unknown. We consider three different ways of defining sparsity of a vector: using the fraction of nonzero terms; imposing powerlaw decay bounds on the ordered entries; and controlling the ℓp norm for p small. We obtain a procedure which is asymptotically minimax for ℓr loss, simultaneously throughout a range of such sparsity classes. The optimal procedure is a dataadaptive thresholding scheme, driven by control of the False Discovery Rate (FDR). FDR control is a recent innovation in simultaneous testing, in which one seeks to ensure that at most a certain fraction of the rejected null hypotheses will correspond to false rejections. In our treatment, the FDR control parameter q also plays a controlling role in asymptotic minimaxity. Our results say that letting q = qn → 0 with problem size n is sufficient for asymptotic minimaxity, while keeping fixed q>1/2prevents asymptotic minimaxity. To our knowledge, this relation between ideas in simultaneous inference and asymptotic decision theory is new. Our work provides a new perspective on a class of model selection rules which has been introduced recently by several authors. These new rules impose complexity penalization of the form 2·log ( potential model size / actual model size). We exhibit a close connection with FDRcontrolling procedures having q tending to 0; this connection strongly supports a conjecture of simultaneous asymptotic minimaxity for such model selection rules.
Controlling the familywise error rate in functional neuroimaging: a comparative review
 Statistical Methods in Medical Research
, 2003
"... Functional neuroimaging data embodies a massive multiple testing problem, where 100 000 correlated test statistics must be assessed. The familywise error rate, the chance of any false positives is the standard measure of Type I errors in multiple testing. In this paper we review and evaluate three a ..."
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Cited by 167 (7 self)
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Functional neuroimaging data embodies a massive multiple testing problem, where 100 000 correlated test statistics must be assessed. The familywise error rate, the chance of any false positives is the standard measure of Type I errors in multiple testing. In this paper we review and evaluate three approaches to thresholding images of test statistics: Bonferroni, random �eld and the permutation test. Owing to recent developments, improved Bonferroni procedures, such as Hochberg’s methods, are now applicable to dependent data. Continuous random �eld methods use the smoothness of the image to adapt to the severity of the multiple testing problem. Also, increased computing power has made both permutation and bootstrap methods applicable to functional neuroimaging. We evaluate these approaches on t images using simulations and a collection of real datasets. We �nd that Bonferronirelated tests offer little improvement over Bonferroni, while the permutation method offers substantial improvement over the random �eld method for low smoothness and low degrees of freedom. We also show the limitations of trying to �nd an equivalent number of independent tests for an image of correlated test statistics. 1
ResamplingBased Multiple Testing for Microarray Data Analysis
, 2003
"... The burgeoning field of genomics has revived interest in multiple testing procedures by raising new methodological and computational challenges. For example, microarray experiments generate large multiplicity problems in which thousands of hypotheses are tested simultaneously. In their 1993 book, We ..."
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Cited by 141 (3 self)
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The burgeoning field of genomics has revived interest in multiple testing procedures by raising new methodological and computational challenges. For example, microarray experiments generate large multiplicity problems in which thousands of hypotheses are tested simultaneously. In their 1993 book, Westfall & Young propose resamplingbased pvalue adjustment procedures which are highly relevant to microarray experiments. This article discusses different criteria for error control in resamplingbased multiple testing, including (a) the family wise error rate of Westfall & Young (1993) and (b) the false discovery rate developed by Benjamini & Hochberg (1995), both from a frequentist viewpoint; and (c) the positive false discovery rate of Storey (2002), which has a Bayesian motivation. We also introduce our recently developed fast algorithm for implementing the minP adjustment to control familywise error rate. Adjusted pvalues for different approaches are applied to gene expression data from two recently published microarray studies. The properties of these procedures for multiple testing are compared.
A stochastic process approach to False discovery rates
, 2001
"... This paper extends the theory of false discovery rates (FDR) pioneered by Benjamini and Hochberg (1995). We develop a framework in which the False Discovery Proportion (FDP) – the number of false rejections divided by the number of rejections – is treated as a stochastic process. After obtaining th ..."
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Cited by 129 (6 self)
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This paper extends the theory of false discovery rates (FDR) pioneered by Benjamini and Hochberg (1995). We develop a framework in which the False Discovery Proportion (FDP) – the number of false rejections divided by the number of rejections – is treated as a stochastic process. After obtaining the limiting distribution of the process, we demonstrate the validitiy of a class of procedures for controlling the False Discovery Rate (the expected FDP). We construct a confidence envelope for the whole FDP process. From these envelopes we derive confidence thresholds, for controlling the quantiles of the distribution of the FDP as well as controlling the number of false discoveries. We also
Posterior consistency of Dirichlet mixtures in density estimation
 Ann. Statist
, 1999
"... A Dirichlet mixture of normal densities is a useful choice for a prior distribution on densities in the problem of Bayesian density estimation. In the recent years, efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo method for the computation of the posterior distribution has been developed. The method has been app ..."
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Cited by 118 (21 self)
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A Dirichlet mixture of normal densities is a useful choice for a prior distribution on densities in the problem of Bayesian density estimation. In the recent years, efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo method for the computation of the posterior distribution has been developed. The method has been applied to data arising from different fields of interest. The important issue of consistency was however left open. In this paper, we settle this issue in affirmative. 1. Introduction. Recent