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**1 - 2**of**2**### Some Aspects of Sensitivity Analysis in Variational Data Assimilation for Coupled Dynamical Systems

"... Variational data assimilation (VDA) remains one of the key issues arising in many fields of geosciences including the numerical weather prediction. While the theory of VDA is well established, there are a number of issues with practical implementation that require additional consideration and study ..."

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Variational data assimilation (VDA) remains one of the key issues arising in many fields of geosciences including the numerical weather prediction. While the theory of VDA is well established, there are a number of issues with practical implementation that require additional consideration and study. However, the exploration of VDA requires considerable computational resources. For simple enough low-order models, the computational cost is minor and therefore models of this class are used as simple test instruments to emulate more complex systems. In this paper, the sensitivity with respect to variations in the parameters of one of the main components of VDA, the nonlinear forecasting model, is considered. For chaotic atmospheric dynamics, conventional methods of sensitivity analysis provide uninformative results since the envelopes of sensitivity functions grow with time and sensitivity functions themselves demonstrate the oscillating behaviour. The use of sensitivity analysis method, developed on the basis of the theory of shadowing pseudoorbits in dynamical systems, allows us to calculate sensitivity functions correctly. Sensitivity estimates for a simple coupled dynamical system are calculated and presented in the paper. To estimate the influence of model parameter uncertainties on the forecast, the relative error in the energy norm is applied.

### ENTROPY FOR SYMBOLIC DYNAMICS WITH OVERLAPPING ALPHABETS

"... Abstract. We consider shift spaces in which elements of the alphabet may overlap nontransitively. We define a notion of entropy for such spaces, give several techniques for computing lower bounds for it, and show that it is equal to a limit of entropies of (standard) full shifts. When a shift space ..."

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Abstract. We consider shift spaces in which elements of the alphabet may overlap nontransitively. We define a notion of entropy for such spaces, give several techniques for computing lower bounds for it, and show that it is equal to a limit of entropies of (standard) full shifts. When a shift space with overlaps arises as a model for a discrete dynamical system with a finite set of overlapping neighborhoods, the entropy gives a lower bound for the topological entropy of the dynamical system. 1.