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166
Provenance semirings
 PODS'07
, 2007
"... We show that relational algebra calculations for incomplete databases, probabilistic databases, bag semantics and whyprovenance are particular cases of the same general algorithms involving semirings. This further suggests a comprehensive provenance representation that uses semirings of polynomials. ..."
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Cited by 197 (30 self)
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We show that relational algebra calculations for incomplete databases, probabilistic databases, bag semantics and whyprovenance are particular cases of the same general algorithms involving semirings. This further suggests a comprehensive provenance representation that uses semirings of polynomials. We extend these considerations to datalog and semirings of formal power series. We give algorithms for datalog provenance calculation as well as datalog evaluation for incomplete and probabilistic databases. Finally, we show that for some semirings containment of conjunctive queries is the same as for standard set semantics.
A comparison of structural CSP decomposition methods
 Artificial Intelligence
, 2000
"... We compare tractable classes of constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs). We first give a uniform presentation of the major structural CSP decomposition methods. We then introduce a new class of tractable CSPs based on the concept of hypertree decomposition recently developed in Database Theory. We i ..."
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Cited by 178 (27 self)
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We compare tractable classes of constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs). We first give a uniform presentation of the major structural CSP decomposition methods. We then introduce a new class of tractable CSPs based on the concept of hypertree decomposition recently developed in Database Theory. We introduce a framework for comparing parametric decompositionbased methods according to tractability criteria and compare the most relevant methods. We show that the method of hypertree decomposition dominates the others in the case of general (nonbinary) CSPs.
HYPERTREE DECOMPOSITIONS AND TRACTABLE QUERIES
, 1998
"... Several important decision problems on conjunctive queries (CQs) are NPcomplete in general but become tractable, and actually highly parallelizable, if restricted to acyclic or nearly acyclic queries. Examples are the evaluation of Boolean CQs and query containment. These problems were shown tracta ..."
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Cited by 166 (43 self)
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Several important decision problems on conjunctive queries (CQs) are NPcomplete in general but become tractable, and actually highly parallelizable, if restricted to acyclic or nearly acyclic queries. Examples are the evaluation of Boolean CQs and query containment. These problems were shown tractable for conjunctive queries of bounded treewidth [7], and of bounded degree of cyclicity [18, 17]. The so far most general concept of nearly acyclic queries was the notion of queries of bounded querywidth introduced by Chekuri and Rajaraman [7]. While CQs of bounded query width are tractable, it remained unclear whether such queries are efficiently recognizable. Chekuri and Rajaraman [7] stated as an open problem whether for each constant k it can be determined in polynomial time if a query has query width ≤ k. We give a negative answer by proving this problem NPcomplete (specifically, for k = 4). In order to circumvent this difficulty, we introduce the new concept of hypertree decomposition of a query and the corresponding notion of hypertree width. We prove: (a) for each k, the class of queries with query width bounded by k is properly contained in the class of queries whose hypertree width is bounded by k; (b) unlike query width, constant hypertreewidth is efficiently recognizable; (c) Boolean queries of constant hypertree width can be efficiently evaluated.
Minimization of Tree Pattern Queries
 In SIGMOD
, 2001
"... Tree patterns form a natural basis to query treestructured data such as XML and LDAP. Since the efficiency of tree pattern matching against a treestructured database depends on the size of the pattern, it is essential to identify and eliminate redundant nodes in the pattern and do so as quickly as ..."
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Cited by 141 (4 self)
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Tree patterns form a natural basis to query treestructured data such as XML and LDAP. Since the efficiency of tree pattern matching against a treestructured database depends on the size of the pattern, it is essential to identify and eliminate redundant nodes in the pattern and do so as quickly as possible. In this paper, we study tree pattern minimization both in the absence and in the presence of integrity constraints (ICs) on the underlying treestructured database. When no ICs are considered, we call the process of minimizing a tree pattern, constraintindependent minimization. We develop a polynomial time algorithm called CIM for this purpose. CIM's efficiency stems from two key properties: (i) a node cannot be redundant unless its children are, and (ii) the order of elimination of redundant nodes is immaterial. When ICs are considered for minimization, we refer to it as constraintdependent minimization. For treestructured databases, required child/descendant and type cooccurrence ICs are very natural. Under such ICs, we show that the minimal equivalent query is unique. We show the surprising result that the algorithm obtained by first augmenting the tree pattern using ICs, and then applying CIM, always finds the unique minimal equivalent query; we refer to this algorithm as ACIM. While ACIM is also polynomial time, it can be expensive in practice because of its inherent nonlocality. We then present a fast algorithm, CDM, that identifies and eliminates local redundancies due to ICs, based on propagating "information labels" up the tree pattern. CDM can be applied prior to ACIM for improving the minimization efficiency. We complement our analytical results with an experimental study that shows the effectiveness of our tree pattern minimization techniques. 1.
Algebraic structures in combinatorial problems
 TECHNICAL REPORT, TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITAT DRESDEN
, 2001
"... ..."
GEORBAC: A spatially aware RBAC
 In ACM Symposium on Access Control Models and Technologies (SACMAT’06
, 2005
"... Securing access to data in locationbased services and mobile applications requires the definition of spatially aware access control systems. Even if some approaches have already been proposed either in the context of geographic database systems or contextaware applications, a comprehensive framewo ..."
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Cited by 87 (11 self)
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Securing access to data in locationbased services and mobile applications requires the definition of spatially aware access control systems. Even if some approaches have already been proposed either in the context of geographic database systems or contextaware applications, a comprehensive framework, general and flexible enough to cope with spatial aspects in real mobile applications, is still missing. In this paper, we make one step towards this direction and we present GEORBAC, an extension of the RBAC model to deal with spatial and locationbased information. In GEORBAC, spatial entities are used to model objects, user positions, and geographically bounded roles. Roles are activated based on the position of the user. Besides a physical position, obtained from a given mobile terminal or a cellular phone, users are also assigned a logical and device independent position, representing the feature (the road, the town, the region) in which they are located. To make the model more flexible and reusable, we also introduce the concept of role schema, specifying the name of the role as well as the type of the role spatial boundary and the granularity of the logical position. We then extend GEORBAC to cope with hierarchies, modeling permission, user, and activation inheritance, and separation of duty constraints. The proposed classes of constraints extend traditional ones to deal with different granularities (schema/instance
Conjunctive Queries over Trees
, 2004
"... We study the complexity and expressive power of conjunctive queries over unranked labeled trees, where the tree structures are represented using âaxis relationsâ such as âchildâ, âdescendantâ, and âfollowingâ (we consider a superset of the XPath axes) as well as unary relations for n ..."
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Cited by 84 (8 self)
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We study the complexity and expressive power of conjunctive queries over unranked labeled trees, where the tree structures are represented using âaxis relationsâ such as âchildâ, âdescendantâ, and âfollowingâ (we consider a superset of the XPath axes) as well as unary relations for node labels. (Cyclic) conjunctive queries over trees occur in a wide range of data management scenarios related to XML, the Web, and computational linguistics. We establish a framework for characterizing structures representing trees for which conjunctive queries can be evaluated efficiently. Then we completely chart the tractability frontier of the problem for our axis relations, i.e., we find all subsetmaximal sets of axes for which query evaluation is in polynomial time. All polynomialtime results are obtained immediately using the proof techniques from our framework. Finally, we study the expressiveness of conjunctive queries over trees and compare it to the expressive power of fragments of XPath. We show that for each conjunctive query, there is an equivalent acyclic positive query (i.e., a set of acyclic conjunctive queries), but that in general this query is not of polynomial size.
Constraint Satisfaction, Bounded Treewidth, and FiniteVariable Logics
, 2002
"... We systematically investigate the connections between constraint satisfaction problems, structures of bounded treewidth, and definability in logics with a finite number of variables. We first show that constraint satisfaction problems on inputs of treewidth less than k are definable using Datalog ..."
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Cited by 72 (12 self)
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We systematically investigate the connections between constraint satisfaction problems, structures of bounded treewidth, and definability in logics with a finite number of variables. We first show that constraint satisfaction problems on inputs of treewidth less than k are definable using Datalog programs with at most k variables; this provides a new explanation for the tractability of these classes of problems. After this, we investigate constraint satisfaction on inputs that are homomorphically equivalent to structures of bounded treewidth.
Tree Pattern Query Minimization
"... Tree patterns form a natural basis to query treestructured data such as XML and LDAP. To improve the efficiency of tree pattern matching, it is essential to quickly identify and eliminate redundant nodes in the pattern. In this paper, we study tree pattern minimization both in the absence and in the ..."
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Cited by 64 (0 self)
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Tree patterns form a natural basis to query treestructured data such as XML and LDAP. To improve the efficiency of tree pattern matching, it is essential to quickly identify and eliminate redundant nodes in the pattern. In this paper, we study tree pattern minimization both in the absence and in the presence of integrity constraints (ICs) on the underlying treestructured database. In the absence of ICs, we develop a polynomialtime query minimization algorithm called CIM, whose efficiency stems from two key properties: (i) a node cannot be redundant unless its children are, and (ii) the order of elimination of redundant nodes is immaterial. When ICs are considered for minimization, we develop a technique for query minimization based on three fundamental operations: augmentation (an adaptation of the wellknown chase procedure), minimization (based on homomorphism techniques), and reduction. We show the surprising result that the algorithm, referred to as ACIM, obtained by first augmenting the tree pattern using ICs, and then applySend offprint requests to: Divesh Srivastava ing CIM, always finds the unique minimal equivalent query. While ACIM is polynomial time, it can be expensive in practice because of its inherent nonlocality. We then present a fast algorithm, CDM, that identifies and eliminates local redundancies due to ICs, based on propagating "information labels " up the tree pattern. CDM can be applied prior to ACIM for improving the minimization efficiency. We complement our analytical results with an experimental study that shows the effectiveness of our tree pattern minimization techniques. Keywords: tree patterns, XML, query minimization 1