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Intriguingly Simple and Fast Transit Routing
 In SEA, volume 7933 of LNCS
, 2013
"... Abstract. This paper studies the problem of computing optimal journeys in dynamic public transit networks. We introduce a novel algorithmic framework, called Connection Scan Algorithm (CSA), to compute journeys. It organizes data as a single array of connections, which it scans once per query. Des ..."
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Abstract. This paper studies the problem of computing optimal journeys in dynamic public transit networks. We introduce a novel algorithmic framework, called Connection Scan Algorithm (CSA), to compute journeys. It organizes data as a single array of connections, which it scans once per query. Despite its simplicity, our algorithm is very versatile. We use it to solve earliest arrival and multicriteria profile queries. Moreover, we extend it to handle the minimum expected arrival time (MEAT) problem, which incorporates stochastic delays on the vehicles and asks for a set of (alternative) journeys that in its entirety minimizes the user’s expected arrival time at the destination. Our experiments on the dense metropolitan network of London show that CSA computes MEAT queries, our most complex scenario, in 272ms on average. 1
RoundBased Public Transit Routing
 In ALENEX
, 2012
"... We study the problem of computing all Paretooptimal journeys in a dynamic public transit network for two criteria: arrival time and number of transfers. Existing algorithms consider this as a graph problem, and solve it using variants of Dijkstra’s algorithm. Unfortunately, this leads to either h ..."
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We study the problem of computing all Paretooptimal journeys in a dynamic public transit network for two criteria: arrival time and number of transfers. Existing algorithms consider this as a graph problem, and solve it using variants of Dijkstra’s algorithm. Unfortunately, this leads to either high query times or suboptimal solutions. We take a different approach. We introduce RAPTOR, our novel roundbased public transit router. Unlike previous algorithms, it is not Dijkstrabased, looks at each route (such as a bus line) in the network at most once per round, and can be made even faster with simple pruning rules and parallelization using multiple cores. Because it does not rely on preprocessing, RAPTOR works in fully dynamic scenarios. Moreover, it can be easily extended to handle flexible departure times or arbitrary additional criteria, such as fare zones. When run on London’s complex public transportation network, RAPTOR computes all Paretooptimal journeys between two random locations an order of magnitude faster than previous approaches, which easily enables interactive applications. 1
UserConstrained MultiModal Route Planning
"... In the multimodal route planning problem we are given multiple transportation networks (e. g., pedestrian, road, public transit) and ask for a best integrated journey between two points. The main challenge is that a seemingly optimal journey may have changes between networks that do not reflect the ..."
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In the multimodal route planning problem we are given multiple transportation networks (e. g., pedestrian, road, public transit) and ask for a best integrated journey between two points. The main challenge is that a seemingly optimal journey may have changes between networks that do not reflect the user’s modal preferences. In fact, quickly computing reasonable multimodal routes remains a challenging problem: Previous approaches either suffer from poor query performance or their available choices of modal preferences during query time is limited. In this work we focus on computing exact multimodal journeys that can be restricted by specifying arbitrary modal sequences at query time. For example, a user can say whether he wants to only use public transit, or also prefers to use a taxi or walking at the beginning or end of the journey; or if he has no restrictions at all. By carefully adapting node contraction, a common ingredient to many speedup techniques on road networks, we are able to compute pointtopoint queries on a continental network combined of cars, railroads and flights several orders of magnitude faster than Dijkstra’s algorithm. Thereby, we require little space overhead and obtain fast preprocessing times.
Is Timetabling Routing Always Reliable for Public Transport?
, 2013
"... Current route planning algorithms for public transport networks are mostly based on timetable information only, i.e., they compute shortest routes under the assumption that all transit vehicles (e.g., buses, subway trains) will incur in no delays throughout their trips. Unfortunately, unavoidable an ..."
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Current route planning algorithms for public transport networks are mostly based on timetable information only, i.e., they compute shortest routes under the assumption that all transit vehicles (e.g., buses, subway trains) will incur in no delays throughout their trips. Unfortunately, unavoidable and unexpected delays often prevent transit vehicles to respect their originally planned schedule. In this paper, we try to measure empirically the quality of the solutions offered by timetabling routing in a real public transport network, where unpredictable delays may happen with a certain frequency, such as the public transport network of the metropolitan area of Rome. To accomplish this task, we take the time estimates required for trips provided by a timetablingbased route planner (such as Google Transit) and compare them against the times taken by the trips according to the actual tracking of transit vehicles in the transport network, measured through the GPS data made available by the transit agency. In our experiments, the movement of transit vehicles was only mildly correlated to the timetable, giving strong evidence that in such a case timetabled routing may fail to deliver optimal or even highquality solutions.