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238
Stimulating Cooperation in SelfOrganizing Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
 ACM/Kluwer Mobile Networks and Applications (MONET
, 2001
"... In military and rescue applications of mobile ad hoc networks, all the nodes belong to the same authority; therefore, they are motivated to cooperate in order to support the basic functions of the network. In this paper, we consider the case when each node is its own authority and tries to maximi ..."
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Cited by 402 (26 self)
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In military and rescue applications of mobile ad hoc networks, all the nodes belong to the same authority; therefore, they are motivated to cooperate in order to support the basic functions of the network. In this paper, we consider the case when each node is its own authority and tries to maximize the benefits it gets from the network. More precisely, we assume that the nodes are not willing to forward packets for the benefit of other nodes.
FAST TCP: Motivation, Architecture, Algorithms, Performance
, 2004
"... We describe FAST TCP, a new TCP congestion control algorithm for highspeed longlatency networks, from design to implementation. We highlight the approach taken by FAST TCP to address the four difficulties, at both packet and flow levels, which the current TCP implementation has at large windows. W ..."
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Cited by 369 (18 self)
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We describe FAST TCP, a new TCP congestion control algorithm for highspeed longlatency networks, from design to implementation. We highlight the approach taken by FAST TCP to address the four difficulties, at both packet and flow levels, which the current TCP implementation has at large windows. We describe the architecture and characterize the equilibrium and stability properties of FAST TCP. We present experimental results comparing our first Linux prototype with TCP Reno, HSTCP, and STCP in terms of throughput, fairness, stability, and responsiveness. FAST TCP aims to rapidly stabilize highspeed longlatency networks into steady, efficient and fair operating points, in dynamic sharing environments, and the preliminary results are promising.
A tutorial on crosslayer optimization in wireless networks
 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS
, 2006
"... This tutorial paper overviews recent developments in optimization based approaches for resource allocation problems in wireless systems. We begin by overviewing important results in the area of opportunistic (channelaware) scheduling for cellular (singlehop) networks, where easily implementable my ..."
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Cited by 248 (29 self)
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This tutorial paper overviews recent developments in optimization based approaches for resource allocation problems in wireless systems. We begin by overviewing important results in the area of opportunistic (channelaware) scheduling for cellular (singlehop) networks, where easily implementable myopic policies are shown to optimize system performance. We then describe key lessons learned and the main obstacles in extending the work to general resource allocation problems for multihop wireless networks. Towards this end, we show that a cleanslate optimization based approach to the multihop resource allocation problem naturally results in a “loosely coupled” crosslayer solution. That is, the algorithms obtained map to different layers (transport, network, and MAC/PHY) of the protocol stack are coupled through a limited amount of information being passed back and forth. It turns out that the optimal scheduling component at the MAC layer is very complex and thus needs simpler (potentially imperfect) distributed solutions. We demonstrate how to use imperfect scheduling in the crosslayer framework and describe recently developed distributed algorithms along these lines. We conclude by describing a set of open research problems.
Fair Resource Allocation in Wireless Networks using Queuelengthbased Scheduling and Congestion Control
"... We consider the problem of allocating resources (time slots, frequency, power, etc.) at a base station to many competing flows, where each flow is intended for a different receiver. The channel conditions may be timevarying and different for different receivers. It is wellknown that appropriate ..."
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Cited by 202 (45 self)
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We consider the problem of allocating resources (time slots, frequency, power, etc.) at a base station to many competing flows, where each flow is intended for a different receiver. The channel conditions may be timevarying and different for different receivers. It is wellknown that appropriately chosen queuelength based policies are throughputoptimal while other policies based on the estimation of channel statistics can be used to allocate resources fairly (such as proportional fairness) among competing users. In this paper, we show that a combination of queuelengthbased scheduling at the base station and congestion control implemented either at the base station or at the end users can lead to fair resource allocation and queuelength stability.
Internet Congestion Control.
 IEEE Control Systems Magazine,
, 2002
"... Abstract This article reviews the current TCP congestion control protocols and overviews recent advances that have brought analytical tools to this problem. We describe an optimizationbased framework that provides an interpretation of various flow control mechanisms, in particular, the utility bei ..."
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Cited by 194 (25 self)
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Abstract This article reviews the current TCP congestion control protocols and overviews recent advances that have brought analytical tools to this problem. We describe an optimizationbased framework that provides an interpretation of various flow control mechanisms, in particular, the utility being optimized by the protocol's equilibrium structure. We also look at the dynamics of TCP and employ linear models to exhibit stability limitations in the predominant TCP versions, despite certain builtin compensations for delay. Finally, we present a new protocol that overcomes these limitations and provides stability in a way that is scalable to arbitrary networks, link capacities, and delays.
On the Complexity of Scheduling in Wireless Networks
 MOBICOM '06
, 2006
"... We consider the problem of throughputoptimal scheduling in wireless networks subject to interference constraints. We model the interference using a family of Khop interference models. We define a Khop interference model as one for which no two links within K hops can successfully transmit at the ..."
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Cited by 129 (3 self)
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We consider the problem of throughputoptimal scheduling in wireless networks subject to interference constraints. We model the interference using a family of Khop interference models. We define a Khop interference model as one for which no two links within K hops can successfully transmit at the same time (Note that IEEE 802.11 DCF corresponds to a 2hop interference model.). For a given K, a throughputoptimal scheduler needs to solve a maximum weighted matching problem subject to the Khop interference constraints. For K = 1, the resulting problem is the classical Maximum Weighted Matching problem, that can be solved in polynomial time. However, we show that for K> 1, the resulting problems are NPHard and cannot be approximated within a factor that grows polynomially with the number of nodes. Interestingly, we show that for specific kinds of graphs, that can be used to model the underlying connectivity graph of a wide range of wireless networks, the resulting problems admit polynomial time approximation schemes. We also show that a simple greedy matching algorithm provides a constant factor approximation to the scheduling problem for all K in this case. We then show that under a setting with singlehop traffic and no rate control, the maximal scheduling policy considered in recent related works can achieve a constant fraction of the capacity region for networks whose connectivity graph can be represented using one of the above classes of graphs. These results are encouraging as they suggest that one can develop distributed algorithms to achieve near optimal throughput in case of a wide range of wireless networks.
Joint congestion control, routing and MAC for stability and fairness in wireless networks
 IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
, 2006
"... In this work, we describe and analyze a joint scheduling, routing and congestion control mechanism for wireless networks, that asymptotically guarantees stability of the buffers and fair allocation of the network resources. The queue lengths serve as common information to different layers of the ne ..."
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Cited by 126 (23 self)
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In this work, we describe and analyze a joint scheduling, routing and congestion control mechanism for wireless networks, that asymptotically guarantees stability of the buffers and fair allocation of the network resources. The queue lengths serve as common information to different layers of the network protocol stack. Our main contribution is to prove the asymptotic optimality of a primaldual congestion controller, which is known to model different versions of TCP well.
Nash Equilibria of Packet Forwarding Strategies in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
, 2006
"... In selforganizing ad hoc networks, all the networking functions rely on the contribution of the participants. As a basic example, nodes have to forward packets for each other in order to enable multihop communication. In recent years, incentive mechanisms have been proposed to give nodes incentive ..."
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Cited by 101 (10 self)
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In selforganizing ad hoc networks, all the networking functions rely on the contribution of the participants. As a basic example, nodes have to forward packets for each other in order to enable multihop communication. In recent years, incentive mechanisms have been proposed to give nodes incentive to cooperate, especially in packet forwarding. However, the need for these mechanisms was not formally justified. In this paper, we address the problem of whether cooperation can exist without incentive mechanisms. We propose a model based on game theory and graph theory to investigate equilibrium conditions of packet forwarding strategies. We prove theorems about the equilibrium conditions for both cooperative and noncooperative strategies. We perform simulations to estimate the probability that the conditions for a cooperative equilibrium hold in randomly generated network scenarios. As the problem is involved, we deliberately restrict ourselves to a static configuration. We conclude that in static ad hoc networks— where the relationships between the nodes are likely to be stable—cooperation needs to be encouraged.
Scheduling efficiency of distributed greedy scheduling algorithms in wireless networks
 in INFOCOM
, 2006
"... Abstract — We consider the problem of distributed scheduling in wireless networks subject to simple collision constraints. We define the efficiency of a distributed scheduling algorithm to be the largest number (fraction) such that the throughput under the distributed scheduling policy is at least e ..."
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Cited by 73 (1 self)
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Abstract — We consider the problem of distributed scheduling in wireless networks subject to simple collision constraints. We define the efficiency of a distributed scheduling algorithm to be the largest number (fraction) such that the throughput under the distributed scheduling policy is at least equal to the efficiency multiplied by the maximum throughput achievable under a centralized policy. For a general interference model, we prove a lower bound on the efficiency of a distributed scheduling algorithm by first assuming that all the traffic only uses onehop of the network. We also prove that the lower bound is tight in the sense that for any fraction larger than the lower bound, we can find a topology and an arrival rate vector within the fraction of the capacity region, such that the network is unstable under a greedy scheduling policy. We then extend our results to a more general multihop traffic scenario and show that similar scheduling efficiency results can be established by introducing prioritization or regulators to the basic greedy scheduling algorithm. Index Terms — Multihop wireless networks, scheduling, greedy algorithms, resource allocation