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171
On the distribution of the length of the longest increasing subsequence of random permutations
 J. Amer. Math. Soc
, 1999
"... Let SN be the group of permutations of 1, 2,...,N. If π ∈ SN,wesaythat π(i1),...,π(ik) is an increasing subsequence in π if i1 <i2 <·· · <ikand π(i1) < π(i2) < ···<π(ik). Let lN (π) be the length of the longest increasing subsequence. For example, if N =5andπis the permutation 5 1 ..."
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Cited by 508 (32 self)
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Let SN be the group of permutations of 1, 2,...,N. If π ∈ SN,wesaythat π(i1),...,π(ik) is an increasing subsequence in π if i1 <i2 <·· · <ikand π(i1) < π(i2) < ···<π(ik). Let lN (π) be the length of the longest increasing subsequence. For example, if N =5andπis the permutation 5 1 3 2 4 (in oneline notation:
Discrete orthogonal polynomial ensembles and the Plancherel measure
, 2001
"... We consider discrete orthogonal polynomial ensembles which are discrete analogues of the orthogonal polynomial ensembles in random matrix theory. These ensembles occur in certain problems in combinatorial probability and can be thought of as probability measures on partitions. The Meixner ensemble i ..."
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Cited by 194 (10 self)
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We consider discrete orthogonal polynomial ensembles which are discrete analogues of the orthogonal polynomial ensembles in random matrix theory. These ensembles occur in certain problems in combinatorial probability and can be thought of as probability measures on partitions. The Meixner ensemble is related to a twodimensional directed growth model, and the Charlier ensemble is related to the lengths of weakly increasing subsequences in random words. The Krawtchouk ensemble occurs in connection with zigzag paths in random domino tilings of the Aztec diamond, and also in a certain simplified directed firstpassage percolation model. We use the Charlier ensemble to investigate the asymptotics of weakly increasing subsequences in random words and to prove a conjecture of Tracy and Widom. As a limit of the Meixner ensemble or the Charlier ensemble we obtain the Plancherel measure on partitions, and using this we prove a conjecture of Baik, Deift and Johansson that under the Plancherel measure, the distribution of the lengths of the first k rows in the partition, appropriately scaled, converges to the asymptotic joint distribution for the k largest eigenvalues of a random matrix from the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble. In this problem a certain discrete kernel, which we call the discrete Bessel kernel, plays an important role.
Phase transition of the largest eigenvalue for nonnull complex sample covariance matrices
, 2008
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Nonintersecting Paths, Pfaffians, and Plane Partitions
 ADVANCES IN MATHEMATICS 83. 96131
, 1990
"... Gessel and Viennot have developed a powerful technique for enumerating various classes of plane partitions [GVl, 21. There are two fundamental ideas behind this technique. The first is the observation that most classes of plane partitions that are of interesteither by association with ..."
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Cited by 163 (2 self)
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Gessel and Viennot have developed a powerful technique for enumerating various classes of plane partitions [GVl, 21. There are two fundamental ideas behind this technique. The first is the observation that most classes of plane partitions that are of interesteither by association with
Generating Trees and the Catalan and Schröder Numbers
 DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS, STOCKHOLMS UNIVERSITET, S106 91
, 1995
"... A permutation 2 Sn avoids the subpattern iff has no subsequence having all the same pairwise comparisons as , and we write 2 Sn ( ). We present a new bijective proof of the wellknown result that jS n (123)j = jS n (132)j = c n , the nth Catalan number. A generalization to forbidden pattern ..."
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Cited by 121 (3 self)
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A permutation 2 Sn avoids the subpattern iff has no subsequence having all the same pairwise comparisons as , and we write 2 Sn ( ). We present a new bijective proof of the wellknown result that jS n (123)j = jS n (132)j = c n , the nth Catalan number. A generalization to forbidden patterns of length 4 gives an asymptotic formula for the vexillary permutations. We settle a conjecture of Shapiro and Getu that jS n (3142; 2413)j = s n\Gamma1 , the Schröder number, and characterize the dequesortable permutations of Knuth, also counted by s n\Gamma1 .
THE KARDARPARISIZHANG EQUATION AND UNIVERSALITY CLASS
, 2011
"... Brownian motion is a continuum scaling limit for a wide class of random processes, and there has been great success in developing a theory for its properties (such as distribution functions or regularity) and expanding the breadth of its universality class. Over the past twenty five years a new univ ..."
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Cited by 101 (15 self)
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Brownian motion is a continuum scaling limit for a wide class of random processes, and there has been great success in developing a theory for its properties (such as distribution functions or regularity) and expanding the breadth of its universality class. Over the past twenty five years a new universality class has emerged to describe a host of important physical and probabilistic models (including one dimensional interface growth processes, interacting particle systems and polymers in random environments) which display characteristic, though unusual, scalings and new statistics. This class is called the KardarParisiZhang (KPZ) universality class and underlying it is, again, a continuum object – a nonlinear stochastic partial differential equation – known as the KPZ equation. The purpose of this survey is to explain the context for, as well as the content of a number of mathematical breakthroughs which have culminated in the derivation of the exact formula for the distribution function of the KPZ equation started with narrow wedge initial data. In particular we emphasize three topics: (1) The approximation of the KPZ equation through the weakly asymmetric simple exclusion process; (2) The derivation of the exact onepoint distribution of the solution to the KPZ equation with narrow wedge initial data; (3) Connections with directed polymers in random media. As the purpose of this article is to survey and review, we make precise statements but provide only heuristic arguments with indications of the technical complexities necessary to make such arguments mathematically rigorous.
Limit theorems for height fluctuations in a class of discrete space and time growth models
 J. Statist. Phys
, 2001
"... We introduce a class of onedimensional discrete spacediscrete time stochastic growth models described by a height function h t(x) with corner initialization. We prove, with one exception, that the limiting distribution function of h t(x) (suitably centered and normalized) equals a Fredholm determi ..."
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Cited by 85 (9 self)
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We introduce a class of onedimensional discrete spacediscrete time stochastic growth models described by a height function h t(x) with corner initialization. We prove, with one exception, that the limiting distribution function of h t(x) (suitably centered and normalized) equals a Fredholm determinant previously encountered in random matrix theory. In particular, in the universal regime of large x and large t the limiting distribution is the Fredholm determinant with Airy kernel. In the exceptional case, called the critical regime, the limiting distribution seems not to have previously occurred. The proofs use the dual RSK algorithm, Gessel's theorem, the Borodin Okounkov identity and a novel, rigorous saddle point analysis. In the fixed x, large t regime, we find a Brownian motion representation. This model is equilvalent to the Seppalainen Johansson model. Hence some of our results are not new, but the proofs are.
ALGEBRAIC ASPECTS OF INCREASING SUBSEQUENCES
 DUKE MATHEMATICAL JOURNAL VOL. 109, NO. 1
, 2001
"... We present a number of results relating partial CauchyLittlewood sums, integrals over the compact classical groups, and increasing subsequences of permutations. These include: integral formulae for the distribution of the longest increasing subsequence of a random involution with constrained number ..."
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Cited by 85 (10 self)
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We present a number of results relating partial CauchyLittlewood sums, integrals over the compact classical groups, and increasing subsequences of permutations. These include: integral formulae for the distribution of the longest increasing subsequence of a random involution with constrained number of fixed points; new formulae for partial CauchyLittlewood sums, as well as new proofs of old formulae; relations of these expressions to orthogonal polynomials on the unit circle; and explicit bases for invariant spaces of the classical groups, together with appropriate generalizations of the straightening algorithm.
Crossings and nestings of matchings and partitions
 TRANS. AMER. MATH. SOC
, 2007
"... We present results on the enumeration of crossings and nestings for matchings and set partitions. Using a bijection between partitions and vacillating tableaux, we show that if we fix the sets of minimal block elements and maximal block elements, the crossing number and the nesting number of parti ..."
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Cited by 83 (20 self)
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We present results on the enumeration of crossings and nestings for matchings and set partitions. Using a bijection between partitions and vacillating tableaux, we show that if we fix the sets of minimal block elements and maximal block elements, the crossing number and the nesting number of partitions have a symmetric joint distribution. It follows that the crossing numbers and the nesting numbers are distributed symmetrically over all partitions of [n], as well as over all matchings on [2n]. As a corollary, the number of knoncrossing partitions is equal to the number of knonnesting partitions. The same is also true for matchings. An application is given to the enumeration of matchings with no kcrossing (or with no knesting).