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Computer Arithmetic Structures for Quantum Cellular Automata
 in Conf. Rec. 37th Asilomar Conf. Signals, Systems and Computers
, 2003
"... In this paper, we discuss arithmetic structures based on quantum cellular automata (QCA). By taking advantage of the unique capabilities of QCA we are able to design interesting computational architectures. We describe important design considerations and show how addition and multiplication circuits ..."
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In this paper, we discuss arithmetic structures based on quantum cellular automata (QCA). By taking advantage of the unique capabilities of QCA we are able to design interesting computational architectures. We describe important design considerations and show how addition and multiplication circuits can be implemented using QCADesigner, a QCA design tool which has been developed in our laboratory. QCA technology allows, among other things, the implementation of majority boolean gates and interconnecting "wires" that support crossovers on the same fabrication level. One of the important challenges with QCA design is working within a different cost function from standard transistor circuits. These differences arise from the device level latching inherent in QCA. This latching makes the total delay of a circuit directly proportional to the maximum number of clocking zones between input and output and the number of gates.
Ram design using quantumdot cellular automata
 In Technical Proceedings of the 2003 Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show
, 2003
"... Quantumdot cellular automata (QCA) is a novel and potentially attractive technology for implementing computing architectures at the nanoscale. By applying a set of simple layout rules, arbitrary circuits can be made using QCA cells. In this work, we describe the design and layout of a QCA random a ..."
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Quantumdot cellular automata (QCA) is a novel and potentially attractive technology for implementing computing architectures at the nanoscale. By applying a set of simple layout rules, arbitrary circuits can be made using QCA cells. In this work, we describe the design and layout of a QCA random access memory (RAM), showing the layout of individual memory cells, as well as, a suggested layout for a 1x4 RAM. The RAM is based on a 2D grid of row addressable memory cells. Each of the memory cells in the RAM uses 158 QCA cells. Assuming that we can fabricate cells which are separated by 10nm, memory capacities of over 1.6 Gbit/cm 2 can be achieved. Simulations on the proposed memories were carried out using QCADesigner, a layout and simulation tool for QCA, by iteratively applying an intercellular HartreeFock approximation.
A Majority Reduction Technique for Adder Structures in Quantumdot Cellular Automata
 Copyright SPIE International Symposium on Optical Science and Technology, paper 555910
"... Quantumdot Cellular Automata (QCA) is a nanotechnology which has potential applications in future computers. In this paper, a method for reducing the number of majority gates (a QCA logic primitive) is developed to facilitate the conversion of SOP expressions of threevariable Boolean functions int ..."
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Quantumdot Cellular Automata (QCA) is a nanotechnology which has potential applications in future computers. In this paper, a method for reducing the number of majority gates (a QCA logic primitive) is developed to facilitate the conversion of SOP expressions of threevariable Boolean functions into QCA majority logic. Thirteen standard functions are proposed to represent all threevariable Boolean functions and the simplified majority expressions corresponding to these standard functions are presented. By applying this method, a onebit QCA adder, with only three majority gates and two inverters, is constructed. We will show that the proposed method is very efficient and fast in deriving the simplified majority expressions in QCA design. Keywords: Quantumdot Cellular Automata, 3cube, QCA adder, majority expression. 1.
A Novel Architecture for QuantumDot Cellular Automata Multiplexer
"... Quantumdot Cellular Automata (QCA) technology is attractive due to its low power consumption, fast speed and small dimension; therefore it is a promising alternative to CMOS technology. Additionally, multiplexer is a useful part in many important circuits. In this paper we propose a novel design of ..."
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Quantumdot Cellular Automata (QCA) technology is attractive due to its low power consumption, fast speed and small dimension; therefore it is a promising alternative to CMOS technology. Additionally, multiplexer is a useful part in many important circuits. In this paper we propose a novel design of 2:1 MUX in QCA. Moreover, a 4:1 multiplexer, an XOR gate and a latch are proposed based on our 2:1 multiplexer design. The simulation results have been verified using the QCADesigner.
c ○ 2008 IOP Publishing Ltd Adiabatic pipelining: A key to ternary computing with
"... Abstract. The Quantumdot Cellular Automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots was introduced by C. S. Lent in the mid 1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more comp ..."
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Abstract. The Quantumdot Cellular Automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots was introduced by C. S. Lent in the mid 1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multivalued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turns out even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We here present a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more the ternary QCAs here presented are size wise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve their faster adoption. PACS numbers: 85.35
MAJORITY
"... This paper presents a simple Multiplexer based Field programmable gate arrays with interconnects based on quantum cellular automata technology. Quantum cellular automata (QCA) technology is a promising nanotechnology of the future. QCA based 4:1 Multiplexer are designed and constructed as a module i ..."
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This paper presents a simple Multiplexer based Field programmable gate arrays with interconnects based on quantum cellular automata technology. Quantum cellular automata (QCA) technology is a promising nanotechnology of the future. QCA based 4:1 Multiplexer are designed and constructed as a module in a FPGA. Multiplexer based designs are used to implement complex Boolean functions and each module can act as a logic element or simple Multiplexer. We have studied here, NOR based logic to implement Sum function of an adder in a QCA FPGA. Finally we have designed and simulated the MUX based logic elements to construct QCA FPGA. This study can be useful for building complex Configurable logic blocks to design a complete FPGA.
Design of High Polarized Binary Wires using Minimum Number of Cells & Related Kink Energy Calculations in Quantum dot Cellular automata
"... Quantum dot Cellular Automata (QCA) is one of the most popular nanotechnology, with the potential for faster speed, lower power consumption and smaller size than the latest CMOS technology. One of the basic building blocks of QCA circuits is QCA wire. The conventional QCA wires require more cells a ..."
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Quantum dot Cellular Automata (QCA) is one of the most popular nanotechnology, with the potential for faster speed, lower power consumption and smaller size than the latest CMOS technology. One of the basic building blocks of QCA circuits is QCA wire. The conventional QCA wires require more cells and it has less polarization. In this paper, we have designed high polarized wires using minimum number of QCA cells. The conventional QCA wires which have large polarization require six or more cells. We have designed the binary wire using three QCA cells whose polarization is same with the conventional six cells wire. So it requires lesser area than conventional one. We make the wire circuit more fault free by adding extra cells at the output section. In each case, the designed QCA wires have more polarization (i.e. more fault free) than conventional wires. Our finally designed high polarized QCA wire has five cells and its polarization is greater than any type of conventional inverters designed till now. Also, here we have calculated the kink energy of each designed binary wires.
unknown title
"... Abstract — Quantum Dot Cellular Automata (QCA) has been emerged as a cutin nanotechnology in the field of digital logic architecture. It is the most emerging technology in nanoscience. QCA designed circuits require lesser power & it has high switching speed and high packaging density with resp ..."
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Abstract — Quantum Dot Cellular Automata (QCA) has been emerged as a cutin nanotechnology in the field of digital logic architecture. It is the most emerging technology in nanoscience. QCA designed circuits require lesser power & it has high switching speed and high packaging density with respect to current CMOS technology. One of the basic building blocks of QCA circuits is QCA inverter. The conventional QCA inverters require more normal cells and it has less polarization. In this paper, we have designed high polarized inverters using minimum number of rotated (45˚) QCA cells. Till now, the conventional inverters which have large polarization, they require three to five normal cells. We have designed the novel inverter using three rotated cells whose polarization is more than the conventional three normal cells inverter. We increasing the polarization i.e. make the three rotated cells inverter circuit more fault free by adding extra rotated cells at the output section. In each case, the designed rotated cells inverters have more polarization (i.e. more fault free) than conventional inverters though it has same number of cells. Our finally designed high polarized rotated cells inverter has five cells and its polarization is greater than any type of conventional inverters designed till now. Also, here we calculate the kink energy of each rotated cells inverters.
1QUANTUMDOT CELLULAR AUTOMATA CARRYLOOK AHEAD ADDER AND BARREL SHIFTER
"... Abstract The use of quantumdots is a promising emerging technology for implementing digital systems at the nanoscale level. Recently studied computational paradigms for quantumdot technology include the use of locally connected quantumdot cellular automata (QCA). This technique is based on the ..."
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Abstract The use of quantumdots is a promising emerging technology for implementing digital systems at the nanoscale level. Recently studied computational paradigms for quantumdot technology include the use of locally connected quantumdot cellular automata (QCA). This technique is based on the interaction of electrons within quantum dots that take advantage of quantum phenomena; the same phenomena that may prove problematic in future integrated circuit technologies as feature sizes continue to decrease. This paper proposes layouts for a carrylookahead adder and barrel shifter based on QCA. The potential application in telecommunications technologies of QCA and the proposed devices is