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96
A general approximation technique for constrained forest problems
 SIAM J. COMPUT.
, 1995
"... We present a general approximation technique for a large class of graph problems. Our technique mostly applies to problems of covering, at minimum cost, the vertices of a graph with trees, cycles, or paths satisfying certain requirements. In particular, many basic combinatorial optimization proble ..."
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Cited by 414 (21 self)
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We present a general approximation technique for a large class of graph problems. Our technique mostly applies to problems of covering, at minimum cost, the vertices of a graph with trees, cycles, or paths satisfying certain requirements. In particular, many basic combinatorial optimization problems fit in this framework, including the shortest path, minimumcost spanning tree, minimumweight perfect matching, traveling salesman, and Steiner tree problems. Our technique produces approximation algorithms that run in O(n log n) time and come within a factor of 2 of optimal for most of these problems. For instance, we obtain a 2approximation algorithm for the minimumweight perfect matching problem under the triangle inequality. Our running time of O(n log n) time compares favorably with the best strongly polynomial exact algorithms running in O(n 3) time for dense graphs. A similar result is obtained for the 2matching problem and its variants. We also derive the first approximation algorithms for many NPcomplete problems, including the nonfixed pointtopoint connection problem, the exact path partitioning problem, and complex locationdesign problems. Moreover, for the prizecollecting traveling salesman or Steiner tree problems, we obtain 2approximation algorithms, therefore improving the previously bestknown performance guarantees of 2.5 and 3, respectively [Math. Programming, 59 (1993), pp. 413420].
Approximation algorithms for metric facility location and kmedian problems using the . . .
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A Factor 2 Approximation Algorithm for the Generalized Steiner Network Problem
 COMBINATORICA
"... We present a factor 2 approximation algorithm for finding a minimumcost subgraph having at least a specified number of edges in each cut. This class of problems includes, among others, the generalized Steiner network problem, which is also known as the survivable network design problem. Our algorit ..."
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Cited by 266 (3 self)
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We present a factor 2 approximation algorithm for finding a minimumcost subgraph having at least a specified number of edges in each cut. This class of problems includes, among others, the generalized Steiner network problem, which is also known as the survivable network design problem. Our algorithm first solves the linear relaxation of this problem, and then iteratively rounds off the solution. The key idea in rounding off is that in a basic solution of the LP relaxation, at least one edge gets included at least to the extent of half. We include this edge into our integral solution and solve the residual problem.
When trees collide: An approximation algorithm for the generalized Steiner problem on networks
, 1994
"... We give the first approximation algorithm for the generalized network Steiner problem, a problem in network design. An instance consists of a network with linkcosts and, for each pair fi; jg of nodes, an edgeconnectivity requirement r ij . The goal is to find a minimumcost network using the a ..."
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Cited by 249 (38 self)
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We give the first approximation algorithm for the generalized network Steiner problem, a problem in network design. An instance consists of a network with linkcosts and, for each pair fi; jg of nodes, an edgeconnectivity requirement r ij . The goal is to find a minimumcost network using the available links and satisfying the requirements. Our algorithm outputs a solution whose cost is within 2dlog 2 (r + 1)e of optimal, where r is the highest requirement value. In the course of proving the performance guarantee, we prove a combinatorial minmax approximate equality relating minimumcost networks to maximum packings of certain kinds of cuts. As a consequence of the proof of this theorem, we obtain an approximation algorithm for optimally packing these cuts; we show that this algorithm has application to estimating the reliability of a probabilistic network.
The primaldual method for approximation algorithms and its application to network design problems.
, 1997
"... Abstract In this survey, we give an overview of a technique used to design and analyze algorithms that provide approximate solutions to N P hard problems in combinatorial optimization. Because of parallels with the primaldual method commonly used in combinatorial optimization, we call it the prim ..."
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Cited by 137 (5 self)
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Abstract In this survey, we give an overview of a technique used to design and analyze algorithms that provide approximate solutions to N P hard problems in combinatorial optimization. Because of parallels with the primaldual method commonly used in combinatorial optimization, we call it the primaldual method for approximation algorithms. We show how this technique can be used to derive approximation algorithms for a number of different problems, including network design problems, feedback vertex set problems, and facility location problems.
Provisioning a Virtual Private Network: A network design problem for multicommodity flow
 In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing
, 2001
"... Consider a setting in which a group of nodes, situated in a large underlying network, wishes to reserve bandwidth on which to support communication. Virtual private networks (VPNs) are services that support such a construct; rather than building a new physical network on the group of nodes that must ..."
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Cited by 109 (13 self)
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Consider a setting in which a group of nodes, situated in a large underlying network, wishes to reserve bandwidth on which to support communication. Virtual private networks (VPNs) are services that support such a construct; rather than building a new physical network on the group of nodes that must be connected, bandwidth in the underlying network is reserved for communication within the group, forming a virtual “subnetwork.” Provisioning a virtual private network over a set of terminals gives rise to the following general network design problem. We have bounds on the cumulative amount of traffic each terminal can send and receive; we must choose a path for each pair of terminals, and a bandwidth allocation for each edge of the network, so that any traffic matrix consistent with the given upper bounds can be feasibly routed. Thus, we are seeking to design a network that can support a continuum of possible traffic scenarios. We provide optimal and approximate algorithms for several variants of this problem, depending on whether the traffic matrix is required to be symmetric, and on whether the designed network is required to be a tree (a natural constraint in a number of basic applications). We also establish a relation between this collection of network design problems and a variant of the facility location problem introduced by Karger and Minkoff; we extend their results by providing a stronger approximation algorithm for this latter problem. 1
RANDOM SAMPLING IN CUT, FLOW, AND NETWORK DESIGN PROBLEMS
, 1999
"... We use random sampling as a tool for solving undirected graph problems. We show that the sparse graph, or skeleton, that arises when we randomly sample a graph’s edges will accurately approximate the value of all cuts in the original graph with high probability. This makes sampling effective for pro ..."
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Cited by 101 (12 self)
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We use random sampling as a tool for solving undirected graph problems. We show that the sparse graph, or skeleton, that arises when we randomly sample a graph’s edges will accurately approximate the value of all cuts in the original graph with high probability. This makes sampling effective for problems involving cuts in graphs. We present fast randomized (Monte Carlo and Las Vegas) algorithms for approximating and exactly finding minimum cuts and maximum flows in unweighted, undirected graphs. Our cutapproximation algorithms extend unchanged to weighted graphs while our weightedgraph flow algorithms are somewhat slower. Our approach gives a general paradigm with potential applications to any packing problem. It has since been used in a nearlinear time algorithm for finding minimum cuts, as well as faster cut and flow algorithms. Our sampling theorems also yield faster algorithms for several other cutbased problems, including approximating the best balanced cut of a graph, finding a kconnected orientation of a 2kconnected graph, and finding integral multicommodity flows in graphs with a great deal of excess capacity. Our methods also improve the efficiency of some parallel cut and flow algorithms. Our methods also apply to the network design problem, where we wish to build a network satisfying certain connectivity requirements between vertices. We can purchase edges of various costs and wish to satisfy the requirements at minimum total cost. Since our sampling theorems apply even when the sampling probabilities are different for different edges, we can apply randomized rounding to solve network design problems. This gives approximation algorithms that guarantee much better approximations than previous algorithms whenever the minimum connectivity requirement is large. As a particular example, we improve the best approximation bound for the minimum kconnected subgraph problem from 1.85 to 1 � O(�log n)/k).
Improved Approximation Algorithms for Uniform Connectivity Problems
 J. Algorithms
"... The problem of finding minimum weight spanning subgraphs with a given connectivity requirement is considered. The problem is NPhard when the connectivity requirement is greater than one. Polynomial time approximation algorithms for various weighted and unweighted connectivity problems are given. Th ..."
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Cited by 79 (3 self)
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The problem of finding minimum weight spanning subgraphs with a given connectivity requirement is considered. The problem is NPhard when the connectivity requirement is greater than one. Polynomial time approximation algorithms for various weighted and unweighted connectivity problems are given. The following results are presented: 1. For the unweighted kedgeconnectivity problem an approximation algorithm that achieves a performance ratio of 1.85 is described. This is the first polynomialtime algorithm that achieves a constant less than 2, for all k. 2. For the weighted kvertexconnectivity problem, a constant factor approximation algorithm is given assuming that the edgeweights satisfy the triangle inequality. This is the first constant factor approximation algorithm for this problem. 3. For the case of biconnectivity, with no assumptions about the weights of the edges, an algorithm that achieves a factor asymptotically approaching 2 is described. This matches the previous best...
Approximation Algorithms for MinimumCost kVertex Connected Subgraphs
 In 34th Annual ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing
, 2002
"... We present two new algorithms for the problem of nding a minimumcost kvertex connected spanning subgraph. The rst algorithm works on undirected graphs with at least 6k vertices and achieves an approximation of 6 times the kth harmonic number (which is O(log k)), The second algorithm works o ..."
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Cited by 69 (2 self)
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We present two new algorithms for the problem of nding a minimumcost kvertex connected spanning subgraph. The rst algorithm works on undirected graphs with at least 6k vertices and achieves an approximation of 6 times the kth harmonic number (which is O(log k)), The second algorithm works on any graph (directed or undirected) and gives an O( n=)approximation algorithm for any > 0 and k (1 )n. These algorithms improve on the previous best approximation factor (more than k=2). The latter algorithm also extends to other problems in network design with vertex connectivity requirements. Our main tools are setpair relaxations, a theorem of Mader's (in the undirected case) and iterative rounding (general case).
An Efficient Approximation Algorithm for the Survivable Network Design Problem
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD MPS CONFERENCE ON INTEGER PROGRAMMING AND COMBINATORIAL OPTIMIZATION
, 1993
"... The survivable network design problem is to construct a minimumcost subgraph satisfying certain given edgeconnectivity requirements. The first polynomialtime approximation algorithm was given by Williamson et al. [20]. This paper gives an improved version that is more efficient. Consider a graph ..."
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Cited by 56 (6 self)
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The survivable network design problem is to construct a minimumcost subgraph satisfying certain given edgeconnectivity requirements. The first polynomialtime approximation algorithm was given by Williamson et al. [20]. This paper gives an improved version that is more efficient. Consider a graph