Results 1  10
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792
Distance metric learning for large margin nearest neighbor classification
 In NIPS
, 2006
"... We show how to learn a Mahanalobis distance metric for knearest neighbor (kNN) classification by semidefinite programming. The metric is trained with the goal that the knearest neighbors always belong to the same class while examples from different classes are separated by a large margin. On seven ..."
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Cited by 685 (15 self)
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We show how to learn a Mahanalobis distance metric for knearest neighbor (kNN) classification by semidefinite programming. The metric is trained with the goal that the knearest neighbors always belong to the same class while examples from different classes are separated by a large margin. On seven data sets of varying size and difficulty, we find that metrics trained in this way lead to significant improvements in kNN classification—for example, achieving a test error rate of 1.3 % on the MNIST handwritten digits. As in support vector machines (SVMs), the learning problem reduces to a convex optimization based on the hinge loss. Unlike learning in SVMs, however, our framework requires no modification or extension for problems in multiway (as opposed to binary) classification. 1
Image retrieval: ideas, influences, and trends of the new age
 ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 2008
"... We have witnessed great interest and a wealth of promise in contentbased image retrieval as an emerging technology. While the last decade laid foundation to such promise, it also paved the way for a large number of new techniques and systems, got many new people involved, and triggered stronger ass ..."
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Cited by 464 (13 self)
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We have witnessed great interest and a wealth of promise in contentbased image retrieval as an emerging technology. While the last decade laid foundation to such promise, it also paved the way for a large number of new techniques and systems, got many new people involved, and triggered stronger association of weakly related fields. In this article, we survey almost 300 key theoretical and empirical contributions in the current decade related to image retrieval and automatic image annotation, and in the process discuss the spawning of related subfields. We also discuss significant challenges involved in the adaptation of existing image retrieval techniques to build systems that can be useful in the real world. In retrospect of what has been achieved so far, we also conjecture what the future may hold for image retrieval research.
Online passiveaggressive algorithms
 JMLR
, 2006
"... We present a unified view for online classification, regression, and uniclass problems. This view leads to a single algorithmic framework for the three problems. We prove worst case loss bounds for various algorithms for both the realizable case and the nonrealizable case. The end result is new alg ..."
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Cited by 420 (24 self)
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We present a unified view for online classification, regression, and uniclass problems. This view leads to a single algorithmic framework for the three problems. We prove worst case loss bounds for various algorithms for both the realizable case and the nonrealizable case. The end result is new algorithms and accompanying loss bounds for hingeloss regression and uniclass. We also get refined loss bounds for previously studied classification algorithms.
Mixed membership stochastic block models for relational data with application to proteinprotein interactions
 In Proceedings of the International Biometrics Society Annual Meeting
, 2006
"... We develop a model for examining data that consists of pairwise measurements, for example, presence or absence of links between pairs of objects. Examples include protein interactions and gene regulatory networks, collections of authorrecipient email, and social networks. Analyzing such data with p ..."
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Cited by 366 (51 self)
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We develop a model for examining data that consists of pairwise measurements, for example, presence or absence of links between pairs of objects. Examples include protein interactions and gene regulatory networks, collections of authorrecipient email, and social networks. Analyzing such data with probabilistic models requires special assumptions, since the usual independence or exchangeability assumptions no longer hold. We introduce a class of latent variable models for pairwise measurements: mixed membership stochastic blockmodels. Models in this class combine a global model of dense patches of connectivity (blockmodel) and a local model to instantiate nodespecific variability in the connections (mixed membership). We develop a general variational inference algorithm for fast approximate posterior inference. We demonstrate the advantages of mixed membership stochastic blockmodels with applications to social networks and protein interaction networks.
Informationtheoretic metric learning
 in NIPS 2006 Workshop on Learning to Compare Examples
, 2007
"... We formulate the metric learning problem as that of minimizing the differential relative entropy between two multivariate Gaussians under constraints on the Mahalanobis distance function. Via a surprising equivalence, we show that this problem can be solved as a lowrank kernel learning problem. Spe ..."
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Cited by 340 (15 self)
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We formulate the metric learning problem as that of minimizing the differential relative entropy between two multivariate Gaussians under constraints on the Mahalanobis distance function. Via a surprising equivalence, we show that this problem can be solved as a lowrank kernel learning problem. Specifically, we minimize the Burg divergence of a lowrank kernel to an input kernel, subject to pairwise distance constraints. Our approach has several advantages over existing methods. First, we present a natural informationtheoretic formulation for the problem. Second, the algorithm utilizes the methods developed by Kulis et al. [6], which do not involve any eigenvector computation; in particular, the running time of our method is faster than most existing techniques. Third, the formulation offers insights into connections between metric learning and kernel learning. 1
A Probabilistic Framework for SemiSupervised Clustering
, 2004
"... Unsupervised clustering can be significantly improved using supervision in the form of pairwise constraints, i.e., pairs of instances labeled as belonging to same or different clusters. In recent years, a number of algorithms have been proposed for enhancing clustering quality by employing such supe ..."
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Cited by 271 (14 self)
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Unsupervised clustering can be significantly improved using supervision in the form of pairwise constraints, i.e., pairs of instances labeled as belonging to same or different clusters. In recent years, a number of algorithms have been proposed for enhancing clustering quality by employing such supervision. Such methods use the constraints to either modify the objective function, or to learn the distance measure. We propose a probabilistic model for semisupervised clustering based on Hidden Markov Random Fields (HMRFs) that provides a principled framework for incorporating supervision into prototypebased clustering. The model generalizes a previous approach that combines constraints and Euclidean distance learning, and allows the use of a broad range of clustering distortion measures, including Bregman divergences (e.g., Euclidean distance and Idivergence) and directional similarity measures (e.g., cosine similarity). We present an algorithm that performs partitional semisupervised clustering of data by minimizing an objective function derived from the posterior energy of the HMRF model. Experimental results on several text data sets demonstrate the advantages of the proposed framework. 1.
Metric Learning by Collapsing Classes
"... We present an algorithm for learning a quadratic Gaussian metric (Mahalanobis distance) for use in classification tasks. Our method relies on the simple geometric intuition that a good metric is one under which points in the same class are simultaneously near each other and far from points in th ..."
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Cited by 224 (2 self)
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We present an algorithm for learning a quadratic Gaussian metric (Mahalanobis distance) for use in classification tasks. Our method relies on the simple geometric intuition that a good metric is one under which points in the same class are simultaneously near each other and far from points in the other classes. We construct a convex optimization problem whose solution generates such a metric by trying to collapse all examples in the same class to a single point and push examples in other classes infinitely far away. We show that when the metric we learn is used in simple classifiers, it yields substantial improvements over standard alternatives on a variety of problems. We also discuss how the learned metric may be used to obtain a compact low dimensional feature representation of the original input space, allowing more efficient classification with very little reduction in performance.
Learning a distance metric from relative comparisons
 In Proc. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems
, 2003
"... This paper presents a method for learning a distance metric from relative comparison such as “A is closer to B than A is to C”. Taking a Support Vector Machine (SVM) approach, we develop an algorithm that provides a flexible way of describing qualitative training data as a set of constraints. We sh ..."
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Cited by 191 (0 self)
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This paper presents a method for learning a distance metric from relative comparison such as “A is closer to B than A is to C”. Taking a Support Vector Machine (SVM) approach, we develop an algorithm that provides a flexible way of describing qualitative training data as a set of constraints. We show that such constraints lead to a convex quadratic programming problem that can be solved by adapting standard methods for SVM training. We empirically evaluate the performance and the modelling flexibility of the algorithm on a collection of text documents. 1
Is that you? Metric learning approaches for face identification
 In ICCV
, 2009
"... Face identification is the problem of determining whether two face images depict the same person or not. This is difficult due to variations in scale, pose, lighting, background, expression, hairstyle, and glasses. In this paper we present two methods for learning robust distance measures: (a) a log ..."
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Cited by 157 (9 self)
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Face identification is the problem of determining whether two face images depict the same person or not. This is difficult due to variations in scale, pose, lighting, background, expression, hairstyle, and glasses. In this paper we present two methods for learning robust distance measures: (a) a logistic discriminant approach which learns the metric from a set of labelled image pairs (LDML) and (b) a nearest neighbour approach which computes the probability for two images to belong to the same class (MkNN). We evaluate our approaches on the Labeled Faces in the Wild data set, a large and very challenging data set of faces from Yahoo! News. The evaluation protocol for this data set defines a restricted setting, where a fixed set of positive and negative image pairs is given, as well as an unrestricted one, where faces are labelled by their identity. We are the first to present results for the unrestricted setting, and show that our methods benefit from this richer training data, much more so than the current stateoftheart method. Our results of 79.3 % and 87.5 % correct for the restricted and unrestricted setting respectively, significantly improve over the current stateoftheart result of 78.5%. Confidence scores obtained for face identification can be used for many applications e.g. clustering or recognition from a single training example. We show that our learned metrics also improve performance for these tasks. 1.
Relative attributes
 In Proceedings of ICCV ’11
, 2011
"... Humannameable visual “attributes ” can benefit various recognition tasks. However, existing techniques restrict these properties to categorical labels (for example, a person is ‘smiling ’ or not, a scene is ‘dry ’ or not), and thus fail to capture more general semantic relationships. We propose to ..."
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Cited by 151 (20 self)
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Humannameable visual “attributes ” can benefit various recognition tasks. However, existing techniques restrict these properties to categorical labels (for example, a person is ‘smiling ’ or not, a scene is ‘dry ’ or not), and thus fail to capture more general semantic relationships. We propose to model relative attributes. Given training data stating how object/scene categories relate according to different attributes, we learn a ranking function per attribute. The learned ranking functions predict the relative strength of each property in novel images. We then build a generative model over the joint space of attribute ranking outputs, and propose a novel form of zeroshot learning in which the supervisor relates the unseen object category to previously seen objects via attributes (for example, ‘bears are furrier than giraffes’). We further show how the proposed relative attributes enable richer textual descriptions for new images, which in practice are more precise for human interpretation. We demonstrate the approach on datasets of faces and natural scenes, and show its clear advantages over traditional binary attribute prediction for these new tasks. 1.