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24
QoSSensitive Transport of RealTime MPEG Video using Adaptive Redundancy Control
 In Proceedings of IEEE Multimedia Systems
, 2000
"... This paper presents an adaptive endtoend protocol for quality of servicesensitive transport of realtime MPEG video using packetlevel forward error correction in dynamic networks. The objective is to facilitate a userspecified QoS endtoend  i.e., without special network support  for realti ..."
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Cited by 28 (3 self)
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This paper presents an adaptive endtoend protocol for quality of servicesensitive transport of realtime MPEG video using packetlevel forward error correction in dynamic networks. The objective is to facilitate a userspecified QoS endtoend  i.e., without special network support  for realtime MPEG video whose timing constraints rule out the use of retransmissionbased congestion control and QoS provisioning schemes. The degree of redundancy  overcode in forward error correction  injected into the network is adjusted as a function of network state, decreasing when the network is wellbehaved to minimize unnecessary network resource consumption, and increasing when it is not to compensate for adverse network effects so as to maintain an invariant level of endtoend QoS. We describe an adaptive packetlevel FEC protocol called AFEC and analyze its properties with respect to optimality and stability. The optimal control problem is nontrivial due to the fact that increased redundancy, b...
Queueing analysis of simple FEC schemes for IP Telephony
 In Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM 2001
, 2001
"... In interactive voice applications, FEC schemes are necessary for the recovery from packet losses. These schemes need to be simple with a light coding and decoding overhead in order to not impact the interactivity. The objective of this paper is to study a well known simple FEC scheme that has been p ..."
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Cited by 18 (3 self)
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In interactive voice applications, FEC schemes are necessary for the recovery from packet losses. These schemes need to be simple with a light coding and decoding overhead in order to not impact the interactivity. The objective of this paper is to study a well known simple FEC scheme that has been proposed and implemented [1], [2], in which for every packet n, some redundant information is added in some subsequent packet n OE. If packet n is lost, it will be reconstructed in case packet n OE is well received. The quality of the reconstructed copy of packet n will depend on the amount of information on packet n we add to packet n OE. We propose a detailed queueing analysis based on a ballot theorem and obtain simple expressions for the audio quality as a function of the amount of redundancy and its relative position to the original information. The analysis shows that this FEC scheme does not scale well and that the quality will finish by deteriorating for any amount of FEC and for any offset OE.
Asymptotic analysis of the GI/M/1/n loss system as n increases to infinity
 Ann. Oper. Res
"... Abstract. This paper provides the asymptotic analysis of the loss probability in the GI/M/1/n queueing system as n increases to infinity. The approach of this paper is alternative to that of the recent papers of Choi and Kim (2000) and Choi et al. (2000) and based on application of modern Tauberian ..."
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Cited by 15 (15 self)
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Abstract. This paper provides the asymptotic analysis of the loss probability in the GI/M/1/n queueing system as n increases to infinity. The approach of this paper is alternative to that of the recent papers of Choi and Kim (2000) and Choi et al. (2000) and based on application of modern Tauberian theorems with remainder. This enables us to simplify the proofs of the results on asymptotic behavior of the loss probability of the abovementioned paper of Choi and Kim (2000) as well as to obtain some new results.
Asymptotic behavior of the number of lost messages
 SIAM J. Appl. Math
, 2004
"... Abstract. The goal of the paper is to study asymptotic behavior of the number of lost messages. Long messages are assumed to be divided into a random number of packets which are transmitted independently of one another. An error in transmission of a packet results in the loss of the entire message. ..."
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Cited by 14 (12 self)
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Abstract. The goal of the paper is to study asymptotic behavior of the number of lost messages. Long messages are assumed to be divided into a random number of packets which are transmitted independently of one another. An error in transmission of a packet results in the loss of the entire message. Messages arrive to the M/GI/1 finite buffer model and can be lost in two cases as either at least one of its packets is corrupted or the buffer is overflowed. With the parameters of the system typical for models of information transmission in real networks, we obtain theorems on asymptotic behavior of the number of lost messages. We also study how the loss probability changes if redundant packets are added. Our asymptotic analysis approach is based on Tauberian theorems with remainder.
Multiple Time Scale Redundancy Control for QoSsensitive Transport of Realtime Traffic
 Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '00
, 2000
"... Endtoend QoS control over besteffort and differentiated service networks which exhibit variability in their exported service properties looms as an important challenge. In previous work, we have shown how packetlevel adaptive FEC can be used in dynamic networks to facilitate invariant userspeci ..."
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Cited by 12 (6 self)
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Endtoend QoS control over besteffort and differentiated service networks which exhibit variability in their exported service properties looms as an important challenge. In previous work, we have shown how packetlevel adaptive FEC can be used in dynamic networks to facilitate invariant userspecified QoS in an endtoend manner. This paper addresses two important problemsselfsimilar burstiness and performance degradation of reactive controls subject to long feedback loopscomplementing the stability/optimality considerations studied earlier. First, for adaptive redundancy control to be effective, its susceptibility to correlated packet drops and queueing delays stemming from selfsimilar burstiness must be fortified. Second, to preserve FEC's viability over ARQ when transporting realtime traffic in WANs, proactivity must be injected to offset the performance degradation of reactive feedback controls when subject to long RTTs. In this paper, we use the recently advanced multi...
On the utility of FEC mechanisms for audio applications
 in Proc. of Quality of Future Internet Services, LNCS 2156
, 2001
"... FEC mechanisms have been proposed to recover from packet losses, and hence to improve the perceived quality in audio applications. Recently, it has been shown in [1] that the redundancy added by a FEC scheme increases the congestion of the network and deteriorates the audio quality instead of improv ..."
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Cited by 8 (1 self)
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FEC mechanisms have been proposed to recover from packet losses, and hence to improve the perceived quality in audio applications. Recently, it has been shown in [1] that the redundancy added by a FEC scheme increases the congestion of the network and deteriorates the audio quality instead of improving it. In this work we show via a simple queuing analysis that the impact of FEC on the audio quality is not always negative and that we can get better quality in some scenarios. In particular, we show that FEC is beneficial when a small number of flows implement it or when the audio applications have some particular utility functions. We derive conditions on when to get a gain in quality as well as bounds on the maximum gain that we can obtain.
Group rekeying with limited unicast recovery
 Computer Networks
, 2004
"... In secure group communications, a key server can deliver a “grouporiented” rekey message [20] to a large number of users efficiently using multicast. For reliable delivery, Keystone [21] proposed the use of forward error correction (FEC) in an initial multicast, followed by the use of unicast delive ..."
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Cited by 7 (2 self)
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In secure group communications, a key server can deliver a “grouporiented” rekey message [20] to a large number of users efficiently using multicast. For reliable delivery, Keystone [21] proposed the use of forward error correction (FEC) in an initial multicast, followed by the use of unicast delivery for users that cannot recover their new keys from the multicast. In this paper, we investigate how to limit unicast recovery to a small fraction r of the user population. By specifying a very small r, almost all users in the group will receive their new keys within a single multicast round. We present analytic models for deriving r as a function of the amount of FEC redundant information (denoted by h) and the rekeying interval duration (denoted by T) for both Bernoulli and twostate Markov Chain loss models. From our analyses, we conclude that r decreases roughly at an exponential rate as h increases. We then present a protocol designed to adaptively adjust (h, T) to achieve a specified r. In particular, our protocol chooses from among all feasible (h, T) pairs one with h and T values close to their feasible minima. Our protocol also adapts to an increase in network traffic. Simulation results using ns2 show that with network congestion our adaptive FEC protocol can still achieve a specified r by adjusting values of h and T.
Probabilistic Analysis of Buffer Starvation in Markovian Queues
 IEEE INFOCOM 2012
, 2012
"... Our purpose in this paper is to obtain the exact distribution of the number of buffer starvations within a sequence of N consecutive packet arrivals. The buffer is modeled as an M/M/1 queue.When the buffer is empty, the service restarts after a certain amount of packets are prefetched. With this goa ..."
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Cited by 7 (1 self)
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Our purpose in this paper is to obtain the exact distribution of the number of buffer starvations within a sequence of N consecutive packet arrivals. The buffer is modeled as an M/M/1 queue.When the buffer is empty, the service restarts after a certain amount of packets are prefetched. With this goal, we propose two approaches, one of which is based on Ballot theorem, and the other uses recursive equations. The Ballot theorem approach gives an explicit solution, but at the cost of the high complexity order in certain circumstances. The recursive approach, though not offering an explicit result, needs fewer computations. We further propose a fluid analysis of starvation probability on the file level, given the distribution of file size and the traffic intensity. The starvation probabilities of this paper have many potential applications. We apply them to optimize the quality of experience (QoE) of media streaming service, by exploiting the tradeoff between the startup delay and the starvation.
TAKÁCS ’ ASYMPTOTIC THEOREM AND ITS APPLICATIONS: A SURVEY
, 712
"... Abstract. The book of Lajos Takács Combinatorial Methods in the Theory of Stochastic Processes has been published in 1967. It discusses various problems associated with ..."
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Cited by 7 (7 self)
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Abstract. The book of Lajos Takács Combinatorial Methods in the Theory of Stochastic Processes has been published in 1967. It discusses various problems associated with
Queueing and Fluid Analysis of Partial Message Discarding Policy
 in the proceedings of 9th IFIP Working Conference on Performance Modeling and Evaluation of ATM and IP Networks
, 2001
"... A message (or a frame) is a group of consecutive packets. Often, a loss of one packet from the message can result in the loss of the whole message. This is the case in ATM where a transport layer protocol (the AAL layer) is responsible for this grouping. Thus, packets of a frame, that arrive after a ..."
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Cited by 6 (3 self)
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A message (or a frame) is a group of consecutive packets. Often, a loss of one packet from the message can result in the loss of the whole message. This is the case in ATM where a transport layer protocol (the AAL layer) is responsible for this grouping. Thus, packets of a frame, that arrive after a packet is lost from the same frame, are useless for the receiver, and an intelligent policy is to discard them so as to avoid the occurrence of future congestion and also to maximize the delivery of complete (good) messages. We provide here a queueing (packet level) and a fluid analysis of such a policy. The first part of the paper deals with a packet model and we obtain exact expressions for the stationary queue length distribution and the Goodput ratio. The second part deals with a fluid model and the fluid analysis leads to simple closed form expressions for the stationary workload process and the fluid Goodput ratio. Our analytical results may also be quite useful in dimensioning the buffer size that is required to achieve a desired Quality of Service (for e.g., bound on the message delay, goodput, throughput etc.).