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On the Completeness of FirstOrder Knowledge Compilation for Lifted Probabilistic Inference
"... Probabilistic logics are receiving a lot of attention today because of their expressive power for knowledge representation and learning. However, this expressivity is detrimental to the tractability of inference, when done at the propositional level. To solve this problem, various lifted inference a ..."
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Cited by 18 (7 self)
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Probabilistic logics are receiving a lot of attention today because of their expressive power for knowledge representation and learning. However, this expressivity is detrimental to the tractability of inference, when done at the propositional level. To solve this problem, various lifted inference algorithms have been proposed that reason at the firstorder level, about groups of objects as a whole. Despite the existence of various lifted inference approaches, there are currently no completeness results about these algorithms. The key contribution of this paper is that we introduce a formal definition of lifted inference that allows us to reason about the completeness of lifted inference algorithms relative to a particular class of probabilistic models. We then show how to obtain a completeness result using a firstorder knowledge compilation approach for theories of formulae containing up to two logical variables. 1 Introduction and related work Probabilistic logic models build on firstorder logic to capture relational structure and on graphical
MultiEvidence Lifted Message Passing, with Application to PageRank and the Kalman Filter
 Proceedings of the 22nd International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI–11). (accepted
, 2011
"... Lifted message passing algorithms exploit repeated structure within a given graphical model to answer queries efficiently. Given evidence, they construct a lifted network of supernodes and superpotentials corresponding to sets of nodes and potentials that are indistinguishable given the evidence. Re ..."
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Cited by 14 (8 self)
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Lifted message passing algorithms exploit repeated structure within a given graphical model to answer queries efficiently. Given evidence, they construct a lifted network of supernodes and superpotentials corresponding to sets of nodes and potentials that are indistinguishable given the evidence. Recently, efficient algorithms were presented for updating the structure of an existing lifted network with incremental changes to the evidence. In the inference stage, however, current algorithms need to construct a separate lifted network for each evidence case and run a modified message passing algorithm on each lifted network separately. Consequently, symmetries across the inference tasks are not exploited. In this paper, we present a novel lifted message passing technique that exploits symmetries across multiple evidence cases. The benefits of this multievidence lifted inference are shown for several important AI tasks such as computing personalized PageRanks and Kalman filters via multievidence lifted Gaussian belief propagation. 1
Efficient Lifting of MAP LP Relaxations Using kLocality
"... Inference in large scale graphical models is an important task in many domains, and in particular for probabilistic relational models (e.g,. Markov logic networks). Such models often exhibit considerable symmetry, and it is a challenge to devise algorithms that exploit this symmetry to speed up infe ..."
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Inference in large scale graphical models is an important task in many domains, and in particular for probabilistic relational models (e.g,. Markov logic networks). Such models often exhibit considerable symmetry, and it is a challenge to devise algorithms that exploit this symmetry to speed up inference. Here we address this task in the context of the MAP inference problem and its linear programming relaxations. We show that symmetry in these problems can be discovered using an elegant algorithm known as the kdimensional WeisfeilerLehman (kWL) algorithm. We run kWL on the original graphical model, and not on the far larger graph of the linear program (LP) as proposed in earlier work in the field. Furthermore, the algorithm is polynomial and thus far more practical than other previous approaches which rely on orbit partitions that are GI complete to find. The fact that kWL can be used in this manner follows from the recently introduced notion of klocal LPs and their relation to Sherali Adams relaxations of graph automorphisms. Finally, for relational models such as Markov logic networks, the benefits of our approach are even more dramatic, as we can discover symmetries in the original domain graph, as opposed to running lifting on the much larger grounded model. 1
Efficient Sequential Clamping for Lifted Message Passing
"... Abstract. Lifted message passing approaches can be extremely fast at computing approximate marginal probability distributions over single variables and neighboring ones in the underlying graphical model. They do, however, not prescribe a way to solve more complex inference tasks such as computing jo ..."
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Abstract. Lifted message passing approaches can be extremely fast at computing approximate marginal probability distributions over single variables and neighboring ones in the underlying graphical model. They do, however, not prescribe a way to solve more complex inference tasks such as computing joint marginals for ktuples of distant random variables or satisfying assignments of CNFs. A popular solution in these cases is the idea of turning the complex inference task into a sequence of simpler ones by selecting and clamping variables one at a time and running lifted message passing again after each selection. This naive solution, however, recomputes the lifted network in each step from scratch, therefore often canceling the benefits of lifted inference. We show how to avoid this by efficiently computing the lifted network for each conditioning directly from the one already known for the single node marginals. Our experiments show that significant efficiency gains are possible for lifted message passing guided decimation for SAT and sampling.
Reduce and ReLift: Bootstrapped Lifted Likelihood Maximization for MAP
"... By handling whole sets of indistinguishable objects together, lifted belief propagation approaches have rendered large, previously intractable, probabilistic inference problems quickly solvable. In this paper, we show that Kumar and Zilberstein’s likelihood maximization (LM) approach to MAP inferenc ..."
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By handling whole sets of indistinguishable objects together, lifted belief propagation approaches have rendered large, previously intractable, probabilistic inference problems quickly solvable. In this paper, we show that Kumar and Zilberstein’s likelihood maximization (LM) approach to MAP inference is liftable, too, and actually provides additional structure for optimization. Specifically, it has been recognized that some pseudo marginals may converge quickly, turning intuitively into pseudo evidence. This additional evidence typically changes the structure of the lifted network: it may expand or reduce it. The current lifted network, however, can be viewed as an upper bound on the size of the lifted network required to finish likelihood maximization. Consequently, we relift the network only if the pseudo evidence yields a reduced network, which can efficiently be computed on the current lifted network. Our experimental results on Ising models, image segmentation and relational entity resolution demonstrate that this bootstrapped LM via “reduce and relift ” finds MAP assignments comparable to those found by the original LM approach, but in a fraction of the time.
Approximate Lifting Techniques for Belief Propagation
"... Many AI applications need to explicitly represent relational structure as well as handle uncertainty. First order probabilistic models combine the power of logic and probability to deal with such domains. A naive approach to inference in these models is to propositionalize the whole theory and carr ..."
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Many AI applications need to explicitly represent relational structure as well as handle uncertainty. First order probabilistic models combine the power of logic and probability to deal with such domains. A naive approach to inference in these models is to propositionalize the whole theory and carry out the inference on the ground network. Lifted inference techniques (such as lifted belief propagation; Singla and Domingos 2008) provide a more scalable approach to inference by combining together groups of objects which behave identically. In many cases, constructing the lifted network can itself be quite costly. In addition, the exact lifted network is often very close in size to the fully propositionalized model. To overcome these problems, we present approximate lifted inference, which groups together similar but distinguishable objects and treats them as if they were identical. Early stopping terminates the execution of the lifted network construction at an early stage resulting in a coarser network. Noisetolerant hypercubes allow for marginal errors in the representation of the lifted network itself. Both of our algorithms can significantly speed up the process of lifted network construction as well as result in much smaller models. The coarseness of the approximation can be adjusted depending on the accuracy required, and we can bound the resulting error. Extensive evaluation on six domains demonstrates great efficiency gains with only minor (or no) loss in accuracy. 1
Proceedings of the TwentySecond International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence MultiEvidence Lifted Message Passing, with Application to PageRank and the Kalman Filter
"... Lifted message passing algorithms exploit repeated structure within a given graphical model to answer queries efficiently. Given evidence, they construct a lifted network of supernodes and superpotentials corresponding to sets of nodes and potentials that are indistinguishable given the evidence. Re ..."
Abstract
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Lifted message passing algorithms exploit repeated structure within a given graphical model to answer queries efficiently. Given evidence, they construct a lifted network of supernodes and superpotentials corresponding to sets of nodes and potentials that are indistinguishable given the evidence. Recently, efficient algorithms were presented for updating the structure of an existing lifted network with incremental changes to the evidence. In the inference stage, however, current algorithms need to construct a separate lifted network for each evidence case and run a modified message passing algorithm on each lifted network separately. Consequently, symmetries across the inference tasks are not exploited. In this paper, we present a novel lifted message passing technique that exploits symmetries across multiple evidence cases. The benefits of this multievidence lifted inference are shown for several important AI tasks such as computing personalized PageRanks and Kalman filters via multievidence lifted Gaussian belief propagation. 1
On Lifted PageRank, Kalman Filter and Towards Lifted Linear Program Solving ∗
"... Lifted message passing algorithms exploit repeated structure within a given graphical model to answer queries efficiently. Given evidence, they construct a lifted network of supernodes and superpotentials corresponding to sets of nodes and potentials that are indistinguishable given the evidence. Re ..."
Abstract
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Lifted message passing algorithms exploit repeated structure within a given graphical model to answer queries efficiently. Given evidence, they construct a lifted network of supernodes and superpotentials corresponding to sets of nodes and potentials that are indistinguishable given the evidence. Recently, efficient algorithms were presented for updating the structure of an existing lifted network with incremental changes to the evidence. In the inference stage, however, current algorithms need to construct a separate lifted network for each evidence case and run a modified message passing algorithm on each lifted network separately. Consequently, symmetries across the inference tasks are not exploited. In this paper, we present a novel lifted message passing technique that exploits symmetries across multiple evidence cases. The benefits of this multievidence lifted inference are shown for several important AI tasks such as solving linear programs, computing personalized PageRanks and Kalman filters via multievidence lifted Gaussian belief propagation. 1