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846
Coordination of Groups of Mobile Autonomous Agents Using Nearest Neighbor Rules
, 2002
"... In a recent Physical Review Letters paper, Vicsek et. al. propose a simple but compelling discretetime model of n autonomous agents fi.e., points or particlesg all moving in the plane with the same speed but with dierent headings. Each agent's heading is updated using a local rule based on ..."
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Cited by 1245 (60 self)
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In a recent Physical Review Letters paper, Vicsek et. al. propose a simple but compelling discretetime model of n autonomous agents fi.e., points or particlesg all moving in the plane with the same speed but with dierent headings. Each agent's heading is updated using a local rule based on the average of its own heading plus the headings of its \neighbors." In their paper, Vicsek et. al. provide simulation results which demonstrate that the nearest neighbor rule they are studying can cause all agents to eventually move in the same direction despite the absence of centralized coordination and despite the fact that each agent's set of nearest neighbors change with time as the system evolves. This paper provides a theoretical explanation for this observed behavior. In addition, convergence results are derived for several other similarly inspired models.
Consensus Problems in Networks of Agents with Switching Topology and TimeDelays
, 2003
"... In this paper, we discuss consensus problems for a network of dynamic agents with fixed and switching topologies. We analyze three cases: i) networks with switching topology and no timedelays, ii) networks with fixed topology and communication timedelays, and iii) maxconsensus problems (or leader ..."
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Cited by 1052 (17 self)
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In this paper, we discuss consensus problems for a network of dynamic agents with fixed and switching topologies. We analyze three cases: i) networks with switching topology and no timedelays, ii) networks with fixed topology and communication timedelays, and iii) maxconsensus problems (or leader determination) for groups of discretetime agents. In each case, we introduce a linear/nonlinear consensus protocol and provide convergence analysis for the proposed distributed algorithm. Moreover, we establish a connection between the Fiedler eigenvalue of the information flow in a network (i.e. algebraic connectivity of the network) and the negotiation speed (or performance) of the corresponding agreement protocol. It turns out that balanced digraphs play an important role in addressing averageconsensus problems. We introduce disagreement functions that play the role of Lyapunov functions in convergence analysis of consensus protocols. A distinctive feature of this work is to address consensus problems for networks with directed information flow. We provide analytical tools that rely on algebraic graph theory, matrix theory, and control theory. Simulations are provided that demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results.
Fast Linear Iterations for Distributed Averaging
 Systems and Control Letters
, 2003
"... We consider the problem of finding a linear iteration that yields distributed averaging consensus over a network, i.e., that asymptotically computes the average of some initial values given at the nodes. When the iteration is assumed symmetric, the problem of finding the fastest converging linear ..."
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Cited by 429 (13 self)
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We consider the problem of finding a linear iteration that yields distributed averaging consensus over a network, i.e., that asymptotically computes the average of some initial values given at the nodes. When the iteration is assumed symmetric, the problem of finding the fastest converging linear iteration can be cast as a semidefinite program, and therefore efficiently and globally solved. These optimal linear iterations are often substantially faster than several common heuristics that are based on the Laplacian of the associated graph.
Flocking for MultiAgent Dynamic Systems: Algorithms and Theory
, 2006
"... In this paper, we present a theoretical framework for design and analysis of distributed flocking algorithms. Two cases of flocking in freespace and presence of multiple obstacles are considered. We present three flocking algorithms: two for freeflocking and one for constrained flocking. A compre ..."
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Cited by 412 (2 self)
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In this paper, we present a theoretical framework for design and analysis of distributed flocking algorithms. Two cases of flocking in freespace and presence of multiple obstacles are considered. We present three flocking algorithms: two for freeflocking and one for constrained flocking. A comprehensive analysis of the first two algorithms is provided. We demonstrate the first algorithm embodies all three rules of Reynolds. This is a formal approach to extraction of interaction rules that lead to the emergence of collective behavior. We show that the first algorithm generically leads to regular fragmentation, whereas the second and third algorithms both lead to flocking. A systematic method is provided for construction of cost functions (or collective potentials) for flocking. These collective potentials penalize deviation from a class of latticeshape objects called αlattices. We use a multispecies framework for construction of collective potentials that consist of flockmembers, or αagents, and virtual agents associated with αagents called β and γagents. We show that migration of flocks can be performed using a peertopeer network of agents, i.e. “flocks need no leaders.” A “universal” definition of flocking for particle systems with similarities to Lyapunov stability is given. Several simulation results are provided that demonstrate performing 2D and 3D flocking, split/rejoin maneuver, and squeezing maneuver for hundreds of agents using the proposed algorithms.
Consensus Seeking in Multiagent Systems under Dynamically Changing Interaction Topologies
, 2003
"... This note considers the problem of information consensus among multiple agents in the presence of limited and unreliable information exchange with dynamically changing interaction topologies. Both discrete and continuous update schemes are proposed for information consensus. The note shows that i ..."
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Cited by 410 (34 self)
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This note considers the problem of information consensus among multiple agents in the presence of limited and unreliable information exchange with dynamically changing interaction topologies. Both discrete and continuous update schemes are proposed for information consensus. The note shows that information consensus under dynamically changing interaction topologies can be achieved asymptotically if the union of the directed interaction graphs across some time intervals has a spanning tree frequently enough as the system evolves. Simulation results show the effectiveness of our update schemes.
Flocking in Fixed and Switching Networks
, 2003
"... The work of this paper is inspired by the flocking phenomenon observed in Reynolds (1987). We introduce a class of local control laws for a group of mobile agents that result in: (i) global alignment of their velocity vectors, (ii) convergence of their speeds to a common one, (iii) collision avoidan ..."
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Cited by 180 (10 self)
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The work of this paper is inspired by the flocking phenomenon observed in Reynolds (1987). We introduce a class of local control laws for a group of mobile agents that result in: (i) global alignment of their velocity vectors, (ii) convergence of their speeds to a common one, (iii) collision avoidance, and (iv) minimization of the agents artificial potential energy. These are made possible through local control action by exploiting the algebraic graph theoretic properties of the underlying interconnection graph. Algebraic connectivity a#ects the performance and robustness properties of the overall closed loop system. We show how the stability of the flocking motion of the group is directly associated with the connectivity properties of the interconnection network and is robust to arbitrary switching of the network topology.
Agreement over random networks
 IEEE Trans. Autom. Control
, 2005
"... Abstract—We consider the agreement problem over random information networks. In a randomnetwork, the existence of an information channel between a pair of units at each time instance is probabilistic and independent of other channels; hence, the topology of the network varies over time. In such a f ..."
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Cited by 159 (3 self)
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Abstract—We consider the agreement problem over random information networks. In a randomnetwork, the existence of an information channel between a pair of units at each time instance is probabilistic and independent of other channels; hence, the topology of the network varies over time. In such a framework, we address the asymptotic agreement for the networked units via notions from stochastic stability. Furthermore, we delineate on the rate of convergence as it relates to the algebraic connectivity of random graphs. Index Terms—Agreement problem, networked systems, random graphs, stochastic stability, supermartingales. I.
A Survey of Consensus Problems in Multiagent Coordination
, 2005
"... As a distributed solution to multiagent coordination, consensus or agreement problems have been studied extensively in the literature. This paper provides a survey of consensus problems in multiagent cooperative control with the goal of promoting research in this area. Theoretical results regard ..."
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Cited by 148 (3 self)
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As a distributed solution to multiagent coordination, consensus or agreement problems have been studied extensively in the literature. This paper provides a survey of consensus problems in multiagent cooperative control with the goal of promoting research in this area. Theoretical results regarding consensus seeking under both timeinvariant and dynamically changing information exchange topologies are summarized. Applications of consensus protocols to multiagent coordination are investigated. Future research directions and open problems are also proposed.
Leadertoformation stability
 IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation
, 2004
"... Abstract—The paper investigates the stability properties of mobile agent formations which are based on leaderfollowing. We derive nonlinear gain estimates that capture how leader behavior affects the interconnection errors observed in the formation. Leader to formation stability (LFS) gains quantif ..."
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Cited by 131 (6 self)
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Abstract—The paper investigates the stability properties of mobile agent formations which are based on leaderfollowing. We derive nonlinear gain estimates that capture how leader behavior affects the interconnection errors observed in the formation. Leader to formation stability (LFS) gains quantify error ampli£cation, relate interconnection topology to stability and performance and offer safety bounds for different formation topologies. Analysis based on the LFS gains provides insight to error propagation and suggests ways to improve the safety, robustness and performance characteristics of a formation. I.
Necessary and sufficient graphical conditions for formation control of unicycles
, 2005
"... The feasibility problem is studied of achieving a specified formation among a group of autonomous unicycles by local distributed control. The directed graph defined by the information flow plays a key role. It is proved that formation stabilization to a point is feasible if and only if the sensor d ..."
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Cited by 126 (5 self)
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The feasibility problem is studied of achieving a specified formation among a group of autonomous unicycles by local distributed control. The directed graph defined by the information flow plays a key role. It is proved that formation stabilization to a point is feasible if and only if the sensor digraph has a globally reachable node. A similar result is given for formation stabilization to a line and to more general geometric arrangements.