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Formal verification in hardware design: A survey
, 1997
"... In recent years, formal methods have emerged as an alternative approach to ensuring the quality and correctness of hardware designs, overcoming some of the limitations of traditional validation techniques such as simulation and testing. There are two main aspects to the application of formal methods ..."
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Cited by 113 (0 self)
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In recent years, formal methods have emerged as an alternative approach to ensuring the quality and correctness of hardware designs, overcoming some of the limitations of traditional validation techniques such as simulation and testing. There are two main aspects to the application of formal methods in a design process: The formal framework used to specify desired properties of a design, and the verification techniques and tools used to reason about the relationship between a specification and a corresponding implementation. We survey a variety of frameworks and techniques which have been proposed in the literature and applied to actual designs. The specification frameworks we describe include temporal logics, predicate logic, abstraction and refinement, as well as containment between!regular languages. The verification techniques presented include model checking, automatatheoretic techniques, automated theorem proving, and approaches that integrate the above methods.
Microprocessor Design Verification
 Journal of Automated Reasoning
, 1989
"... The verification of a microprocessor design has been accomplished using a mechanical theorem prover. This microprocessor, the FM8502, is a 32bit general purpose, von Neumann processor whose designlevel (gatelevel) specification has been verified with respect to its instructionlevel specification ..."
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Cited by 60 (3 self)
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The verification of a microprocessor design has been accomplished using a mechanical theorem prover. This microprocessor, the FM8502, is a 32bit general purpose, von Neumann processor whose designlevel (gatelevel) specification has been verified with respect to its instructionlevel specification. Both specifications were written in the BoyerMoore logic, and the proof of correctness was carried out with the BoyerMoore theorem prover.
Formal Hardware Verification with BDDs: An Introduction
"... This paper is a brief introduction to the main paradigms for using BDDs in formal hardware verification. The paper addresses two audiences: for people doing theoretical BDD research, the paper gives a glimpse of the problems in the main application area, and ..."
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This paper is a brief introduction to the main paradigms for using BDDs in formal hardware verification. The paper addresses two audiences: for people doing theoretical BDD research, the paper gives a glimpse of the problems in the main application area, and
Structuring and Automating Hardware Proofs in a HigherOrder TheoremProving Environment
 Formal Methods in System Design
, 1993
"... . In this article we present a structured approach to formal hardware verification by modelling circuits at the registertransfer level using a restricted form of higherorder logic. This restricted form of higherorder logic is sufficient for obtaining succinct descriptions of hierarchically design ..."
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Cited by 25 (8 self)
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. In this article we present a structured approach to formal hardware verification by modelling circuits at the registertransfer level using a restricted form of higherorder logic. This restricted form of higherorder logic is sufficient for obtaining succinct descriptions of hierarchically designed registertransfer circuits. By exploiting the structure of the underlying hardware proofs and limiting the form of descriptions used, we have attained nearly complete automation in proving the equivalences of the specifications and implementations. A hardwarespecific tool called MEPHISTO converts the original goal into a set of simpler subgoals, which are then automatically solved by a generalpurpose, firstorder prover called FAUST. Furthermore, the complete verification framework is being integrated within a commercial VLSI CAD framework. Keywords: hardware verification, higherorder logic 1 Introduction The past decade has witnessed the spiralling of interest within the academic com...
DILL: Specifying Digital Logic in LOTOS
, 1994
"... Data Type) operations on input values. However, the timedependent behaviour of logic circuits is often important, so it is better to use LOTOS behaviour expressions. More importantly, a specification using ADTs would not readily support `wiring up' a circuit. Each logic gate is therefore speci ..."
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Cited by 21 (17 self)
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Data Type) operations on input values. However, the timedependent behaviour of logic circuits is often important, so it is better to use LOTOS behaviour expressions. More importantly, a specification using ADTs would not readily support `wiring up' a circuit. Each logic gate is therefore specified as a LOTOS process, instantiated with appropriate parameters. A real logic gate exhibits a propagation delay from a change in input to the subsequent output. This appears naturally in a LOTOS specification since output events follow input events. However, the actual time delay between such events is not modelled in LOTOS. For many purposes the exact delay is unimportant, since a design that assumed specific propagation delays in each real gate might be prone to race conditions. Many logic designs are synchronous to 2 Since `gate' has both a hardware meaning and a LOTOS meaning, the term is qualified where necessary. avoid such problems, and this removes the need to model delays explicitl...
Techniques For Efficient Formal Verification Using Binary Decision Diagrams
, 1995
"... The appeal of automatic formal verification is that it's automatic  minimal human labor and expertise should be needed to get useful results and counterexamples. BDD(binary decision diagram)based approaches have promised to allow automatic verification of complex, real systems. For large cl ..."
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Cited by 17 (0 self)
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The appeal of automatic formal verification is that it's automatic  minimal human labor and expertise should be needed to get useful results and counterexamples. BDD(binary decision diagram)based approaches have promised to allow automatic verification of complex, real systems. For large classes of problems, however, (including many distributed protocols, multiprocessor systems, and network architectures) this promise has yet to be fulfilled. Indeed, the few successes have required extensive time and effort from sophisticated researchers in the field. Clearly, techniques are needed that are more sophisticated than the obvious direct implementation of theoretical results. This thesis addresses that need, emphasizing an application domain that has been particularly difficult for BDDbased methods  highlevel models of systems or distributed protocols  rather than gatelevel descriptions of circuits. Additionally, the emphasis is on providing useful debugging information for the...
Transparent Proofs and Limits to Approximation
, 1994
"... We survey a major collective accomplishment of the theoretical computer science community on efficiently verifiable proofs. Informally, a formal proof is transparent (or holographic) if it can be verified with large confidence by a small number of spotchecks. Recent work by a large group of researc ..."
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We survey a major collective accomplishment of the theoretical computer science community on efficiently verifiable proofs. Informally, a formal proof is transparent (or holographic) if it can be verified with large confidence by a small number of spotchecks. Recent work by a large group of researchers has shown that this seemingly paradoxical concept can be formalized and is feasible in a remarkably strong sense; every formal proof in ZF, say, can be rewritten in transparent format (proving the same theorem in a different proof system) without increasing the length of the proof by too much. This result in turn has surprising implications for the intractability of approximate solutions of a wide range of discrete optimization problems, extending the pessimistic predictions of the PNP theory to approximate solvability. We discuss the main results on transparent proofs and their implications to discrete optimization. We give an account of several links between the two subjects as well ...