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Topology Control in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks
 ACM Computing Surveys
, 2005
"... Topology Control (TC) is one of the most important techniques used in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks to reduce energy consumption (which is essential to extend the network operational time) and radio interference (with a positive effect on the network traffic carrying capacity). The goal of thi ..."
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Cited by 304 (4 self)
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Topology Control (TC) is one of the most important techniques used in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks to reduce energy consumption (which is essential to extend the network operational time) and radio interference (with a positive effect on the network traffic carrying capacity). The goal of this technique is to control the topology of the graph representing the communication links between network nodes with the purpose of maintaining some global graph property (e.g., connectivity), while reducing energy consumption and/or interference that are strictly related to the nodes ’ transmitting range. In this article, we state several problems related to topology control in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks, and we survey stateoftheart solutions which have been proposed to tackle them. We also outline several directions for further research which we hope will motivate researchers to undertake additional studies in this field.
The Critical Transmitting Range for Connectivity in Sparse Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
, 2003
"... In this paper, we analyze the critical transmitting range for connectivity in wireless ad hoc networks. More specifically, we consider the following problem: assume n nodes, each capable of communicating with nodes within a radius of r, are randomly and uniformly distributed in a ddimensional re ..."
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Cited by 149 (12 self)
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In this paper, we analyze the critical transmitting range for connectivity in wireless ad hoc networks. More specifically, we consider the following problem: assume n nodes, each capable of communicating with nodes within a radius of r, are randomly and uniformly distributed in a ddimensional region with a side of length l; how large must the transmitting range r be to ensure that the resulting network is connected with high probability? First, we consider this problem for stationary networks, and we provide tight upper and lower bounds on the critical transmitting range for onedimensional networks, and nontight bounds for two and threedimensional networks. Due to the presence of the geometric parameter l in the model, our results can be applied to dense as well as sparse ad hoc networks, contrary to existing theoretical results that apply only to dense networks. We also investigate several related questions through extensive simulations. First, we evaluate the relationship between the critical transmitting range and the minimum transmitting range that ensures formation of a connected component containing a large fraction (e.g. 90%) of the nodes. Then, we consider the mobile version of the
On the complexity of computing minimum energy consumption broadcast subgraphs
 in Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science
, 2001
"... Abstract. We consider the problem of computing an optimal range assignment in a wireless network which allows a specified source station to perform a broadcast operation. In particular, we consider this problem as a special case of the following more general combinatorial optimization problem, calle ..."
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Cited by 110 (13 self)
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Abstract. We consider the problem of computing an optimal range assignment in a wireless network which allows a specified source station to perform a broadcast operation. In particular, we consider this problem as a special case of the following more general combinatorial optimization problem, called Minimum Energy Consumption Broadcast Subgraph (in short, MECBS): Given a weighted directed graph and a specified source node, find a minimum cost range assignment to the nodes, whose corresponding transmission graph contains a spanning tree rooted at the source node. We first prove that MECBS is not approximable within a constant factor (unless P=NP). We then consider the restriction of MECBS to wireless networks and we prove several positive and negative results, depending on the geometric space dimension and on the distancepower gradient. The main result is a polynomialtime approximation algorithm for the NPhard case in which both the dimension and the gradient are equal to 2: This algorithm can be generalized to the case in which the gradient is greater than or equal to the dimension. 1
Power Optimization in FaultTolerant Topology Control Algorithms for Wireless Multihop Networks
 in Proceedings of the 9th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking. 2003
, 2003
"... In ad hoc wireless networks, it is crucial to minimize power consumption while maintaining key network properties. This work studies power assignments of wireless devices that minimize power while maintaining kfault tolerance. Specifically, we require all links established by this power setting be ..."
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Cited by 84 (6 self)
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In ad hoc wireless networks, it is crucial to minimize power consumption while maintaining key network properties. This work studies power assignments of wireless devices that minimize power while maintaining kfault tolerance. Specifically, we require all links established by this power setting be symmetric and form a kvertex connected subgraph of the network graph. This problem is known to be NPhard. We show current heuristic approaches can use arbitrarily more power than the optimal solution. Hence, we seek approximation algorithms for this problem. We present three approximation algorithms. The first algorithm gives an O(kα)approximation where α is the best approximation factor for the related problem in wired networks (the best α so far is O(log k).) With a more careful analysis, we show our second (slightly more complicated) algorithm is an O(k)approximation. Our third algorithm assumes that the edge lengths of the network graph form a metric. In this case, we present simple and practical distributed algorithms for the cases of 2 and 3connectivity with constant approximation factors. We generalize this algorithm to obtain an O(k 2c+2)approximation for general kconnectivity (2 ≤ c ≤ 4 is the power attenuation exponent). Finally, we show that these approximation algorithms compare favorably with existing heuristics. We note that all algorithms presented in this paper can be used to minimize power while maintaining kedge connectivity with guaranteed approximation factors.
The power range assignment problem in radio networks on the plane
 Proc. 17th Annual Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS
, 2000
"... Abstract. Given a finite set S of points (i.e. the stations of a radio network) on the plane and a positive integer 1 ≤ h ≤ S  −1, the 2d Min h R. Assign. problem consists of assigning transmission ranges to the stations so as to minimize the total power consumption provided that the transmission ..."
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Cited by 42 (7 self)
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Abstract. Given a finite set S of points (i.e. the stations of a radio network) on the plane and a positive integer 1 ≤ h ≤ S  −1, the 2d Min h R. Assign. problem consists of assigning transmission ranges to the stations so as to minimize the total power consumption provided that the transmission ranges of the stations ensure the communication between any pair of stations in at most h hops. We provide a lower bound on the total power consumption opt h (S) yielded by an optimal range assignment for any instance (S, h) of2d Min h R. Assign., for any positive constant h>0. The lower bound is a function of S, h and the minimum distance over all the pairs of stations in S. Then, we derive a constructive upper bound for the same problem as a function of S, h and the maximum distance over all the pairs of stations in S (i.e. the diameter of S). Finally, by combining the above bounds, we obtain a polynomialtime approximation algorithm for 2d Min h R. Assign. restricted to wellspread instances, for any positive constant h. Previous results for this problem were known only in special 1dimensional configurations (i.e. when points are arranged on a line).
On The Symmetric Range Assignment Problem In Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
, 2002
"... In this paper we consider a constrained version of the range assignment problem for wireless ad hoc networks, where the value the node transmitting ranges must be assigned in such a way that the resulting communication graph is strongly connected and the energy cost is minimum. We impose the further ..."
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Cited by 41 (1 self)
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In this paper we consider a constrained version of the range assignment problem for wireless ad hoc networks, where the value the node transmitting ranges must be assigned in such a way that the resulting communication graph is strongly connected and the energy cost is minimum. We impose the further requirement of symmetry on the resulting communication graph. We also consider a weaker notion of symmetry, in which only the existence of a set of symmetric edges that renders the communication graph connected is required. Our interest in these problems is motivated by the fact that a (weakly) symmetric range assignment can be more easily integrated with existing higher and lowerlevel protocols for ad hoc networks, which assume that all the nodes have the same transmitting range. We show that imposing symmetry does not change the complexity of the problem, which remains NPhard in two and threedimensional networks. We also show that a weakly symmetric range assignment can reduce the energy cost considerably with respect to the homogeneous case, in which all the nodes have the same transmitting range, and that no further (asymptotic) bene t is expected from the asymmetric range assignment. Hence, the results presented in this paper indicate that weak symmetry is a desirable property of the range assignment.
Some Recent Theoretical Advances and Open Questions on Energy Consumption in AdHoc Wireless Networks
, 2002
"... One of the main benefits of power controlled adhoc wireless networks is their ability to vary the range in order to reduce the power consumption. Minimizing energy consumption is crucial on such kind of networks since, typically, wireless devices are portable and benefit only of limited power resou ..."
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Cited by 33 (10 self)
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One of the main benefits of power controlled adhoc wireless networks is their ability to vary the range in order to reduce the power consumption. Minimizing energy consumption is crucial on such kind of networks since, typically, wireless devices are portable and benefit only of limited power resources. On the other hand, the network must have a sufficient degree of connectivity in order to guarantee fast and efficient communication. These two aspects yield a class of fundamental optimization problems, denoted as range assignment problems, that have been the subject of several works in the area of wireless network theory. The primary aim of this paper is to describe the most important recent advances on this class of problems. Rather than completeness, the paper will try to provide results and techniques that seem to be the most promising to address the several important related problems which are still open. Discussing such related open problems are indeed our other main goal.
Randomized communication in radio networks
 HANDBOOK OF RANDOMIZED COMPUTING
, 2001
"... A communication network is called a radio network if its nodes exchange messages in the following restricted way. First, a send operation performed by a node delivers copies of the same message to all directly reachable nodes. Secondly, a node can successfully receive an incoming message only if exa ..."
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Cited by 17 (0 self)
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A communication network is called a radio network if its nodes exchange messages in the following restricted way. First, a send operation performed by a node delivers copies of the same message to all directly reachable nodes. Secondly, a node can successfully receive an incoming message only if exactly one of its neighbors sent a message in that step. It is this semantics of how ports at nodes send and receive messages that defines the networks rather than the fact that only radio waves are used as a medium of communication; but if that is the case then just a single frequency is used. We discuss algorithmic aspects of exchanging information in such networks, concentrating on distributed randomized protocols. Specific problems and solutions depend a lot on the topology of the underlying reachability graph and how much the nodes know about it. In singlehop networks each pair of nodes can communicate directly. This kind of networks is also known as the multiple access channel. Popular
Target Transmission Radius over LMST for EnergyEfficient Broadcast Protocol in Ad Hoc Networks
 In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC’04
, 2004
"... We investigate minimum energy broadcasting problem where mobile nodes have the capability to adjust their transmission range. The power consumption for two nodes at distance is +c, where # # 2 and c is a constant that includes signal processing and minimal reception power. We show that, for ..."
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Cited by 16 (8 self)
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We investigate minimum energy broadcasting problem where mobile nodes have the capability to adjust their transmission range. The power consumption for two nodes at distance is +c, where # # 2 and c is a constant that includes signal processing and minimal reception power. We show that, for c > 0 (which is realistic assumption), it is not optimal to minimize transmission range. Furthermore, we demonstrate that there exists an optimal radius, computed with an hexagonal tiling of the network area, that minimizes the power consumption. For # > 2 and c > 0, the optimal radius is r = ., which is derived theoretically, and confirmed experimentally. We propose also a localized broadcast algorithm TRLBOP which takes this optimal radius into account. This protocol is experimentally shown to be efficient compared to existing localized protocol LBOP and globalized BIP protocol. Most importantly, TRLBOP is shown to have limited energy overhead with respect to BIP for all network densities, which is not the case with LBOP whose overhead explodes for higher densities.
A Dominating Sets and Target Radius Based Localized Activity Scheduling and Minimum Energy Broadcast Protocol for Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks
 In Proc. of the Mediterranean Ad Hoc Networking Workshop (MedHocNet 2004
, 2004
"... Several localized broadcasting protocols for ad hoc and sensor networks were proposed recently, with the goal of minimizing the energy consumption, while still guaranteeing a total coverage of the network. Also, several activity scheduling protocols were proposed, which select nodes in a connected d ..."
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Cited by 10 (2 self)
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Several localized broadcasting protocols for ad hoc and sensor networks were proposed recently, with the goal of minimizing the energy consumption, while still guaranteeing a total coverage of the network. Also, several activity scheduling protocols were proposed, which select nodes in a connected dominating set to be active, with the rest of nodes left in sleep mode for energy savings. This article is the first to consider both problems as a single combined one, in which a localized protocol is proposed as a solution. First, each node considers only neighbors whose distance is no greater than the target radius (which depends on the power consumption model used), and neighbors in a localized connected topological structure such as RNG or LMST. Then, a connected dominating set is constructed using this subgraph. Next, nodes not selected for the set are sent to sleep mode (they periodically wake up for sending and receiving messages from associated closest dominating set nodes). Nodes in selected dominating set remain active and apply neighbor elimination based broadcasting (reduced to a subset of dominant neighbors with the help of the RNG or LMST), with transmission range adjusted to their furthest neighbor (in the considered subgraph) not covered by other transmissions. The algorithm has been implemented and compared with a centralized (BIP) and target radius based minimum energy broadcasting (TRLBOP) protocol (which do not place any node to sleep mode). It is shown that our algorithm requires similar amount of energy for broadcasting as TRLBOP, but in addition also has energy savings coming from sleep mode status of significant number of nodes. Moreover, our protocol offers the advantage of a smaller latency, since fewer nodes participate in the broadcast.