Results 1  10
of
44
Situated learning and education
 Educational Researcher
, 1996
"... This paper provides a reviezo of the claims of situated learning that are having an increasing influence on education generally and mathematics education particularly. We review the four central claims of situated learning with respect to education: (1) action is grounded in the concrete situation i ..."
Abstract

Cited by 208 (4 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
This paper provides a reviezo of the claims of situated learning that are having an increasing influence on education generally and mathematics education particularly. We review the four central claims of situated learning with respect to education: (1) action is grounded in the concrete situation in which it occurs; (2) knowledge does not transfer between tasks; (3) training by abstraction is of little use; and (4) instruction must be done in complex, social environments. In each case, we cite empirical literature to show that the claims are overstated and that some of the educational implications that have been taken from these claims are misguided. Educational Researcher, VoL 25, No. 4, pp. 511 F ollowing on the socalled "cognitive revolution " in psychology that began in the 1960s, education, and particularly mathematics and science education, has been acquiring new insights from psychology and new approaches and instructional techniques based on these
Chunking Models of Expertise: Implications for Education
"... Chunking models offer a parsimonious explanation of how people acquire knowledge and have been validated in domains such as expert behaviour and the acquisition of language. In this paper, we review two computational theories based on chunking mechanisms (the chunking theory and the template theory) ..."
Abstract

Cited by 23 (1 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Chunking models offer a parsimonious explanation of how people acquire knowledge and have been validated in domains such as expert behaviour and the acquisition of language. In this paper, we review two computational theories based on chunking mechanisms (the chunking theory and the template theory) and show what insight they offer for instruction and training. The suggested implications include the importance of perception in learning, the cost of acquiring knowledge, the significance of segmenting and ordering instruction material, the role of the variability of the instructional material in acquiring schemata, and the importance of taking individual differences into account.
Selfregulated learning strategies and achievement in an ıntroduction to ınformation systems course.
 Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal,
, 2002
"... ..."
(Show Context)
The Mathematics Education Reform: Why You Should Be Concerned And What You Can Do
 You Can Do. Am. Math. Monthly
"... In 1962, when the New Math was still on its ascent, 75 leading mathematicians published... The purpose of this article is to discuss briefly some of the salient features of the reform, explain why the stakes are so high this time around, and finally point out some possible avenues for individual and ..."
Abstract

Cited by 18 (2 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
In 1962, when the New Math was still on its ascent, 75 leading mathematicians published... The purpose of this article is to discuss briefly some of the salient features of the reform, explain why the stakes are so high this time around, and finally point out some possible avenues for individual and collective action by mathematicians. Real progress in changing the direction of the reform will come only when reasoned arguments are heard from the whole mathematical community.
A constructivist approach to teaching: Implications in teaching computer networking
 Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal
, 2003
"... The rapidly changing, increasingly complex business world requires college graduates to use multiple, complex skills to solve business problems. Conventional teaching strategies that mainly consist of lectures may not be effective to prepare these students for employment. Constructivist learning the ..."
Abstract

Cited by 8 (1 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
The rapidly changing, increasingly complex business world requires college graduates to use multiple, complex skills to solve business problems. Conventional teaching strategies that mainly consist of lectures may not be effective to prepare these students for employment. Constructivist learning theory, which uses construction kits to assist learners to construct knowledge and emphasizes presenting learning activity in a meaningful context, provides an alternative theoretical foundation for rethinking and redesigning teaching practices. This paper presents the constructivist theory and offers examples of teaching practices based on the theory for teaching basic computer networking concepts.
The Mathematics Education Reform: What is it and why should you care?
"... this article is to give an overview of the reform from the standpoint of a working mathematician and, in the process, supply enough details to make sense of the preceding assertions. Some possible courses of action are also suggested. ..."
Abstract

Cited by 7 (5 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
this article is to give an overview of the reform from the standpoint of a working mathematician and, in the process, supply enough details to make sense of the preceding assertions. Some possible courses of action are also suggested.
INTERACTIVE SIMULATIONS IN THE TEACHING OF STATISTICS: PROMISE AND PITFALLS
"... Research on discovery learning and simulation training are reviewed with the focus on principles relevant to the teaching of statistics. Research indicates that even a welldesigned simulation is unlikely to be an effective teaching tool unless students ' interaction with it is carefully struct ..."
Abstract

Cited by 7 (2 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Research on discovery learning and simulation training are reviewed with the focus on principles relevant to the teaching of statistics. Research indicates that even a welldesigned simulation is unlikely to be an effective teaching tool unless students ' interaction with it is carefully structured. Asking students to anticipate the results of a simulation before interacting with it appears to be an effective instructional technique. Examples of simulations using this technique from the project Online Statistics Education: An Interactive Multimedia Course of Study
Enhancing arithmetic and word problem solving skills efficiently by individualized computerassisted practice
 The Journal of Educational Research
, 2010
"... Abstract Fluency of basic arithmetical operations is a precondition for mathematical problem solving. However, training of skills plays a minor role in contemporary mathematics instruction. We propose individualization of practice as a means to improve its efficiency, so that the time spent with tr ..."
Abstract

Cited by 5 (0 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
Abstract Fluency of basic arithmetical operations is a precondition for mathematical problem solving. However, training of skills plays a minor role in contemporary mathematics instruction. We propose individualization of practice as a means to improve its efficiency, so that the time spent with training of skills is minimized. As a tool to relieve teachers from the time consuming tasks of individual diagnosis, selection of problems, and immediate feedback, we have developed adaptive training software. We evaluated the application of the software in two naturalistic studies with 9 thirdgrade classes. Results show that even a moderate amount of individualized practice is associated with large improvements of arithmetic skills and problem solving, even after a followup period of three months. 2009 To appear in The Journal of Educational Research 2 Currently, many authors emphasize the importance of conceptual understanding for the learning of mathematics, whereas the learning of procedures is viewed as having little benefit for the development of conceptual understanding Therefore, practice must be organized so as to maximize efficiency. This can be accomplished by individualizing practice sessions. The aim of this work is to investigate how much a moderate amount of individualized practice contributes to the improvement of pupils' achievements in arithmetic and mathematical problem solving. To this end, we have developed adaptive training software that supports teachers in individualizing practice. Skill acquisition and conceptual understanding There are numerous examples of how conceptual understanding facilitates the development of procedures (Blöte et al., 2000; 3 The finding that minimally guided instruction often fails to produce significant learning outcomes in lower achieving children According to Kirschner et al., the activities required in instructional settings with minimal guidance make heavy demands on working memory, which impedes the acquisition of new concepts. Working memory can best be relieved by automatization of skills, which requires practice How can the development of skills be supported while avoiding blind rote learning? A possible solution lies in the hierarchical structure of skills. Most complex skills are composed of simpler subskills, which can often be practiced separately. This conception, put forward by Our claim for individualization is based on the theory of skill acquisition To summarize, our goal is to use the hierarchical structure of arithmetic skills in order to build up complex skills gradually, guaranteeing that the learner understands each practiced subskill. This ensures that conceptual knowledge keeps pace with the development of skills, and that practicing skills means preparation for meaningful activities 4 Computer assisted and individualized instruction As stated earlier, practice should be organized to maximize efficiency. Having each student in a class work on problems requiring skills that are in the associative phase of their development is efficient, because nobody is forced to practice procedures he has not yet understood nor procedures that are already automatic. Translating this into action requires diagnosing the current skill status, selecting and administering appropriate problems, and providing immediate feedback. All these are time consuming tasks, which a teacher cannot accomplish for 20+ students. Fortunately, these tasks are understood well enough to be automated in a computer program. Given the importance of computer support for individualization, the empirical research literature about the effects of computerassisted instruction (CAI) and individualization has to be examined. Since these are independent factors, the following four To our knowledge, the four conditions have never been compared in one experiment. Most studies compare interventions in accordance with Conditions a, b, or rarely c with "traditional instruction", which is often implicitly identified with Condition d. This identification is problematic, because the character of instruction in the control groups is often poorly described. Concerning Condition d, it is well documented that non individualized interventions often favor the higher achieving students Positive effects of computer based instruction (Conditions a and c) have been found soon after computers had been available in schools 1 However, the control conditions in the analysed studies were quite heterogeneous: If, for example, the experimental variable consists of two variants of a CAI, smaller effects are expected than when comparing a smallgroup intervention with regular instruction. 6 To summarize, available data about the effectiveness of tools supporting individualized practice are scarce but nonetheless promising. As with PAT and "Accelerated Math", implementing the systems means a considerable intervention into the everyday routine of a school. We suspect that this is a hindrance to a wider distribution of the systems and acceptance would be greater for less invasive alternatives. With our software, we are aiming at providing such a tool that is easy to integrate within existing classroom routines. A second aspect, where we want to go beyond existing studies is to overcome the restriction to students with special needs (Kroesbergen and VanLuit, 2003). Our goal is that all students should benefit from the practice sessions. The adaptive training software "Merlin's Math Mill" read. This is meant to be a break and also an incentive to work diligently. Pilot studies In autumn 2004 we ran a pilot study with the first version of MMM. At that time, the program was not equipped with an automatic problem selection mechanism. The problems had to be selected manually. This resulted in some minor modifications of the user interface and correction of bugs. Experiment 1 According to the objective of developing a practical tool for individualizing practice, we wanted to test the effectiveness of the tool in a realistic and practicable instructional setting. That means we set up a training schedule that can be implemented without requiring aboveaverage commitment of students or parents to learning arithmetic. We think that a weekly practice session of one hour in seven consecutive weeks meets this criterion. Our research questions were: (1) What do students gain from a small amount of additional individualized practice? (2) Do all students benefit from individualized practice with MMM in the same way? Since this was the first experiment in which the fully automatic version of MMM was employed, we wanted to test (3) how well this version worked. Concerning Question 1, we expected that trained students would improve their performance significantly more than control students, because the described individualization results in a high utilization of the limited training time. Concerning Question 2, we expected that improvements were not contingent on initial skill level. This expectation is founded on the fact that each student practices problems that match her current skills, enabling progress from any level of skills. We try to answer Question 3 by comparing effect sizes with similar studies. Specifically, we compare the effects of the automatic version with those of the pilot study from 2004, in which the practice problems were selected manually in a time consuming procedure. We consider the automation of problem selection as key to the practicability of individualized training. Participants IRB clearance for the study was obtained from the supervisory school authority of the city of Bayreuth, Germany. 113 children from five 3 rd classes in three elementary schools in Bayreuth participated in the experiment. Parents were informed about the project with a letter distributed at school. They were 10 asked to indicate if their child would participate in the training sessions and return the letter with their signature. Fiftyseven children volunteered for participation, the remaining 56 served as a control group. So practical reasons prevented us from randomizing to treatment and control. Based on informal communications we found that the motivations of parents and pupils to participate or not were diverse, ranging from interest in helping low achieving children, ambitions on the side of parents, to other engagements, such as soccer training. Thus, it is not surprising that we did not find significant differences in pretest scores (t=0.90, df=108, p=.37), sex (χ 2 =2. 35, df=1, p=.13), age (t=0.37, df=108, p=.71), and migration background (χ 2 =1.16, df=1, p=.28) between the groups. Although we did not randomize, we believe that the diversity of reasons to participate or not and the equivalence of the groups in important variables make it unlikely that possible training effects are mainly attributable to confounding variables. As three pupils did not complete the posttest, the following analyses are based on N=110 participants, 57 girls and 53 boys. The mean age of the participants at pretest was 8;7 (SD=4.8). 17.5% of the participants had a migration background (i.e. the child or at least one parent has a first language other than German). Although the children with migration background scored significantly lower on the pretest than the other children (t=2.39, p<.05), migration status had no effect on the effectiveness of the training and was not involved in any significant interactions (all Fs<1.0). Measures We assessed arithmetic skills and mathematical problem solving with a test developed in our There are two parallel versions of the test. To avoid ceiling effects, the test contains more items than third graders can do within the given time limit. Each correctly answered equation problem scored one point. For word problems, one point was scored for the correct calculation, one point for the correct result, and one point for the correct unit stated in the answer. 11 The scores of the subtests "computation problems" and "word problems" are correlated with r=.63 (p<.001), justifying the calculation of a total score. The combined retest / parallel test reliability for the total score, based on the control group data is r=.82 (p<.001). For levelling the prior skill level, we calculated residuals of the posttest total score controlled for the pretest score ("posttest residuals"). For leveling the mean skill level of the class, we pooled the variance within classes (i.e. we standardized the scores by subtracting the class mean of the pretest score and dividing the difference by the respective standard deviation). We refer to this measure as "standardized scores". All these measures reflect the speed aspect of performance. To assess the power aspect of performance, we did separate analyses with the items that have been attempted by at least 80% of the students, 12 Data analysis There are two aspects of training effects: Differences between the conditions and improvement. To test if the trained groups outperformed the control groups after the practice sessions, we conducted multivariate betweensubjects analyses of covariance on the posttest scores in computation problems and word problems. Although the two groups did not differ in their pretest scores, we selected them as covariates to increase power by reducing error variance and to control for individual differences in initial arithmetic skills. We entered class as a factor to test possible class effects. Where the emphasis was on different improvements of subgroups with high vs. low initial skill level, we calculated analyses of variance with the total scores in pretest and posttest as repeated measures. Effect sizes are being expressed as partial η 2 coefficients, which represent the proportion of variance explained by the respective factor or interaction. According to 2 values between .05 and .12 are medium effects; η 2 values greater than .12 are large effects. With N=110 and α=.05 the analysis of variance detects medium effects with a power of 1β = .74 and large effects with a power of 1β = .99. Results We begin the presentation of the results with a more qualitative description of the training sessions, followed by quantitative analyses of the progress the different groups made from pretest to posttest. Description of the training sessions In the seven training sessions, the children worked through 54 to 168 computation problems (M=104), 64 to 145 word problems (M=102), and 24 to 73 number space problems (M=48). The large range of number of finished problems raises the question about individual differences in motivation. Of the five participants who solved the least number of problems, one boy missed a training session, but was inconspicuous otherwise. Two girls and a boy all with a pretest performance above average spent unreasonably much time with certain problem sets, particularly with word problems. One of the girls had to be admonished repeatedly not to chat with her neighbor. These children seemed to lack motivation to solve the practice problems; accordingly, the two girls gained but two points, the boy ten
Critique: Assessment and the Production of Learning
"... Education researchers and classroom teachers have argued that the constant pressure to measure and rank students makes it difficult to shape assessment as an episode of learning. Yet we know little about how learning moves in and through assessment of any kind. Building on two national multisited st ..."
Abstract

Cited by 3 (0 self)
 Add to MetaCart
(Show Context)
Education researchers and classroom teachers have argued that the constant pressure to measure and rank students makes it difficult to shape assessment as an episode of learning. Yet we know little about how learning moves in and through assessment of any kind. Building on two national multisited studies, the research reported here uses ethnographic techniques to examine learning within critique. Critique is a form of assessment through which young people jointly judge their own work and that of their peers. The article focuses on episodes of critique within two nonschool sites for collaborative production involving ethnically and economically diverse groups of youth—a communitybased video project and an organization in which young people create radio stories for local and national broadcast. Learning environments such as these draw voluntary youth participation and are organized around sustained projects released to outside audiences. Findings indicate that critique manifests itself as an episode of learning by engaging young people in joint assessment events that are improvisational, reciprocal, and oriented toward the future of the work under review. Intra and crosssite comparisons suggest that critique is likely to arise within specific
The utility of implicit learning in the teaching of rules
 Learning and Instruction
, 2006
"... Abstract The potential impact of implicit learning on education has been repeatedly stressed, though little research has examined this connection directly. The current paper describes two experiments that, inspired by artificial grammar learning experiments, examine the utility of implicit learning ..."
Abstract

Cited by 2 (0 self)
 Add to MetaCart
Abstract The potential impact of implicit learning on education has been repeatedly stressed, though little research has examined this connection directly. The current paper describes two experiments that, inspired by artificial grammar learning experiments, examine the utility of implicit learning as a method for teaching atomic bonding rules to 11e12 year old school children. Two groups were given tasks that led to explicit rule learning; two other groups were given tasks that did not lead to rule learning; and a control group was trained on irrelevant stimuli. We observed an implicit learning effect, but learning was much more effective when more explicit ways of teaching were employed. These findings suggest that mere exposure to regular material is not sufficient for effective learning of rules, and that an explicit approach to instruction is advisable.