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549
Micro Effects of Macro Announcements: RealTime Price Discovery in Foreign Exchange
, 2002
"... Using a new dataset consisting of six years of realtime exchange rate quotations, macroeconomic expectations, and macroeconomic realizations (announcements), we characterize the conditional means of U.S. dollar spot exchange rates versus German Mark, British Pound, Japanese Yen, Swiss Franc, and th ..."
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Cited by 275 (24 self)
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Using a new dataset consisting of six years of realtime exchange rate quotations, macroeconomic expectations, and macroeconomic realizations (announcements), we characterize the conditional means of U.S. dollar spot exchange rates versus German Mark, British Pound, Japanese Yen, Swiss Franc, and the Euro. In particular, we find that announcement surprises (that is, divergences between expectations and realizations, or "news") produce conditional mean jumps; hence highfrequency exchange rate dynamics are linked to fundamentals. The details of the linkage are intriguing and include announcement timing and sign effects. The sign effect refers to the fact that the market reacts to news in an asymmetric fashion: bad news has greater impact than good news, which we relate to recent theoretical work on information processing and price discovery. Key Words: Exchange Rates; Macroeconomic News Announcements; Jumps; Market Microstructure; HighFrequency Data; Expectations Data; Anticipations Data; Order Flow; Asset Return Volatility; Forecasting.
Roughing It Up: Including Jump Components in the Measurement, Modeling and Forecasting of Return Volatility
 REVIEW OF ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS, FORTHCOMING
, 2006
"... A rapidly growing literature has documented important improvements in financial return volatility measurement and forecasting via use of realized variation measures constructed from highfrequency returns coupled with simple modeling procedures. Building on recent theoretical results in BarndorffNi ..."
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Cited by 166 (11 self)
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A rapidly growing literature has documented important improvements in financial return volatility measurement and forecasting via use of realized variation measures constructed from highfrequency returns coupled with simple modeling procedures. Building on recent theoretical results in BarndorffNielsen and Shephard (2004a, 2005) for related bipower variation measures, the present paper provides a practical and robust framework for nonparametrically measuring the jump component in asset return volatility. In an application to the DM/ $ exchange rate, the S&P500 market index, and the 30year U.S. Treasury bond yield, we find that jumps are both highly prevalent and distinctly less persistent than the continuous sample path variation process. Moreover, many jumps appear directly associated with specific macroeconomic news announcements. Separating jump from nonjump movements in a simple but sophisticated volatility forecasting model, we find that almost all of the predictability in daily, weekly, and monthly return volatilities comes from the nonjump component. Our results thus set the stage for a number of interesting future econometric developments and important financial applications by separately modeling, forecasting, and pricing the continuous and jump components of the total return variation process.
The Relative Contribution of Jumps to Total Price Variance
 JOURNAL OF FINANCIAL ECONOMETRICS
, 2005
"... We examine tests for jumps based on recent asymptotic results; we interpret the tests as Hausmantype tests. Monte Carlo evidence suggests that the daily ratio zstatistic has appropriate size, good power, and good jump detection capabilities revealed by the confusion matrix comprised of jump classi ..."
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Cited by 162 (6 self)
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We examine tests for jumps based on recent asymptotic results; we interpret the tests as Hausmantype tests. Monte Carlo evidence suggests that the daily ratio zstatistic has appropriate size, good power, and good jump detection capabilities revealed by the confusion matrix comprised of jump classification probabilities. We identify a pitfall in applying the asymptotic approximation over an entire sample. Theoretical and Monte Carlo analysis indicates that microstructure noise biases the tests against detecting jumps, and that a simple lagging strategy corrects the bias. Empirical work documents evidence for jumps that account for 7% of stock market price variance.
How often to sample a continuoustime process in the presence of market microstructure noise
 Review of Financial Studies
, 2005
"... In theory, the sum of squares of log returns sampled at high frequency estimates their variance. When market microstructure noise is present but unaccounted for, however, we show that the optimal sampling frequency is finite and derives its closedform expression. But even with optimal sampling, usi ..."
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Cited by 156 (14 self)
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In theory, the sum of squares of log returns sampled at high frequency estimates their variance. When market microstructure noise is present but unaccounted for, however, we show that the optimal sampling frequency is finite and derives its closedform expression. But even with optimal sampling, using say 5min returns when transactions are recorded every second, a vast amount of data is discarded, in contradiction to basic statistical principles. We demonstrate that modeling the noise and using all the data is a better solution, even if one misspecifies the noise distribution. So the answer is: sample as often as possible. Over the past few years, price data sampled at very high frequency have become increasingly available in the form of the Olsen dataset of currency exchange rates or the TAQ database of NYSE stocks. If such data were not affected by market microstructure noise, the realized volatility of the process (i.e., the average sum of squares of logreturns sampled at high frequency) would estimate the returns ’ variance, as is well known. In fact, sampling as often as possible would theoretically produce in the limit a perfect estimate of that variance. We start by asking whether it remains optimal to sample the price process at very high frequency in the presence of market microstructure noise, consistently with the basic statistical principle that, ceteris paribus, more data are preferred to less. We first show that, if noise is present but unaccounted for, then the optimal sampling frequency is finite, and we We are grateful for comments and suggestions from the editor, Maureen O’Hara, and two anonymous
Predicting volatility: getting the most out of return data sampled at different frequencies
, 2004
"... We consider various MIDAS (Mixed Data Sampling) regression models to predict volatility. The models differ in the specification of regressors (squared returns, absolute returns, realized volatility, realized power, and return ranges), in the use of daily or intradaily (5minute) data, and in the le ..."
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Cited by 144 (20 self)
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We consider various MIDAS (Mixed Data Sampling) regression models to predict volatility. The models differ in the specification of regressors (squared returns, absolute returns, realized volatility, realized power, and return ranges), in the use of daily or intradaily (5minute) data, and in the length of the past history included in the forecasts. The MIDAS framework allows us to compare models across all these dimensions in a very tightly parameterized fashion. Using equity return data, we find that daily realized power (involving 5minute absolute returns) is the best predictor of future volatility (measured by increments in quadratic variation) and outperforms model based on realized volatility (i.e. past increments in quadratic variation). Surprisingly, the direct use of highfrequency (5minute) data does not improve volatility predictions. Finally, daily lags of one to two months are sufficient to capture the persistence in volatility. These findings hold both in and outofsample.
A Theoretical Comparison Between Integrated and Realized Volatilities
, 2002
"... In this paper, we provide both qualitative and quantitative measures of the precision of measuring integrated volatility by realized volatility for a fixed frequency of observation. We start by characterizing for a general diffusion the dierence between realized and integrated volatility for a given ..."
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Cited by 134 (8 self)
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In this paper, we provide both qualitative and quantitative measures of the precision of measuring integrated volatility by realized volatility for a fixed frequency of observation. We start by characterizing for a general diffusion the dierence between realized and integrated volatility for a given frequency of observation. Then we compute the mean and variance of this noise and the correlation between the noise and the integrated volatility in the Eigenfunction Stochastic Volatility model of Meddahi (2001a). This model has as special cases lognormal, affine and GARCH diusion models. Using previous empirical results, we show that the noise is substantial compared with the unconditional mean and variance of integrated volatility, even if one employs fiveminute returns. We also propose a simple approach to capture the information about integrated volatility contained in the returns through the leverage eect. We show that in practice, the leverage effect does not matter.
Separating microstructure noise from volatility
, 2006
"... There are two variance components embedded in the returns constructed using high frequency asset prices: the timevarying variance of the unobservable efficient returns that would prevail in a frictionless economy and the variance of the equally unobservable microstructure noise. Using sample moment ..."
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Cited by 130 (9 self)
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There are two variance components embedded in the returns constructed using high frequency asset prices: the timevarying variance of the unobservable efficient returns that would prevail in a frictionless economy and the variance of the equally unobservable microstructure noise. Using sample moments of high frequency return data recorded at different frequencies, we provide a simple and robust technique to identify both variance components. In the context of a volatilitytiming trading strategy, we show that careful (optimal) separation of the two volatility components of the observed stock returns yields substantial utility gains.
Agentbased computational finance
 in Handbook of Computational Economics, Agentbased Computational Economics
, 2006
"... This paper surveys research on computational agentbased models used in finance. It will concentrate on models where the use of computational tools is critical in the process of crafting models which give insights into the importance and dynamics of investor heterogeneity in many financial settings. ..."
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Cited by 100 (3 self)
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This paper surveys research on computational agentbased models used in finance. It will concentrate on models where the use of computational tools is critical in the process of crafting models which give insights into the importance and dynamics of investor heterogeneity in many financial settings.