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, 1998

"... We review higher-dimensional unified theories from the general relativity, rather than the particle physics side. Three distinct approaches to the subject are identified and contrasted: compactified, projective and noncompactified. We discuss the cosmological and astrophysical implications of extra ..."

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We review higher-dimensional unified theories from the general relativity, rather than the particle physics side. Three distinct approaches to the subject are identified and contrasted: compactified, projective and noncompactified. We discuss the cosmological and astrophysical implications of extra dimensions, and conclude that none of the three approaches can be ruled out on observational grounds at the present time. Kaluza’s [1] achievement was to show that five-dimensional general relativity contains both Einstein’s four-dimensional theory of gravity and Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism. He however imposed a somewhat artificial restriction (the cylinder condition) on the coordinates, essentially barring the fifth one a