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59
Computing differential invariants of hybrid systems as fixedpoints
, 2008
"... Abstract. We introduce a fixedpoint algorithm for verifying safety properties of hybrid systems with differential equations whose righthand sides are polynomials in the state variables. In order to verify nontrivial systems without solving their differential equations and without numerical errors, ..."
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Cited by 58 (21 self)
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Abstract. We introduce a fixedpoint algorithm for verifying safety properties of hybrid systems with differential equations whose righthand sides are polynomials in the state variables. In order to verify nontrivial systems without solving their differential equations and without numerical errors, we use a continuous generalization of induction, for which our algorithm computes the required differential invariants. As a means for combining local differential invariants into global system invariants in a sound way, our fixedpoint algorithm works with a compositional verification logic for hybrid systems. To improve the verification power, we further introduce a saturation procedure that refines the system dynamics successively with differential invariants until safety becomes provable. By complementing our symbolic verification algorithm with a robust version of numerical falsification, we obtain a fast and sound verification procedure. We verify roundabout maneuvers in air traffic management and collision avoidance in train control.
A framework for worstcase and stochastic safety verification using barrier certificates
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATIC CONTROL
, 2007
"... This paper presents a methodology for safety verification of continuous and hybrid systems in the worstcase and stochastic settings. In the worstcase setting, a function of state termed barrier certificate is used to certify that all trajectories of the system starting from a given initial set do ..."
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Cited by 50 (1 self)
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This paper presents a methodology for safety verification of continuous and hybrid systems in the worstcase and stochastic settings. In the worstcase setting, a function of state termed barrier certificate is used to certify that all trajectories of the system starting from a given initial set do not enter an unsafe region. No explicit computation of reachable sets is required in the construction of barrier certificates, which makes it possible to handle nonlinearity, uncertainty, and constraints directly within this framework. In the stochastic setting, our method computes an upper bound on the probability that a trajectory of the system reaches the unsafe set, a bound whose validity is proven by the existence of a barrier certificate. For polynomial systems, barrier certificates can be constructed using convex optimization, and hence the method is computationally tractable. Some examples are provided to illustrate the use of the method.
DifferentialAlgebraic Dynamic Logic for DifferentialAlgebraic Programs
"... Abstract. We generalise dynamic logic to a logic for differentialalgebraic programs, i.e., discrete programs augmented with firstorder differentialalgebraic formulas as continuous evolution constraints in addition to firstorder discrete jump formulas. These programs characterise interacting discr ..."
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Cited by 41 (28 self)
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Abstract. We generalise dynamic logic to a logic for differentialalgebraic programs, i.e., discrete programs augmented with firstorder differentialalgebraic formulas as continuous evolution constraints in addition to firstorder discrete jump formulas. These programs characterise interacting discrete and continuous dynamics of hybrid systems elegantly and uniformly. For our logic, we introduce a calculus over real arithmetic with discrete induction and a new differential induction with which differentialalgebraic programs can be verified by exploiting their differential constraints algebraically without having to solve them. We develop the theory of differential induction and differential refinement and analyse their deductive power. As a case study, we present parametric tangential roundabout maneuvers in air traffic control and prove collision avoidance in our calculus.
ConstraintBased Approach for Analysis of Hybrid Systems
 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2008
"... Abstract. This paper presents a constraintbased technique for discovering a rich class of inductive invariants (disjunctions of polynomial inequalities of bounded degree) for verification of hybrid systems. The key idea is to introduce a template for the unknown invariants and then translate the ve ..."
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Cited by 41 (10 self)
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Abstract. This paper presents a constraintbased technique for discovering a rich class of inductive invariants (disjunctions of polynomial inequalities of bounded degree) for verification of hybrid systems. The key idea is to introduce a template for the unknown invariants and then translate the verification condition of the hybrid system into an ∃ ∀ constraint over the template unknowns (which are variables over reals) by making use of the fact that vector fields must point inwards at the boundary. These constraints are then solved using Farkas lemma. We also present preliminary experimental results that demonstrate the feasibility of our approach of solving the ∃ ∀ constraints generated from models of realworld hybrid systems. 1
Formal verification of hybrid systems
, 2011
"... In formal verification, a designer first constructs a model, with mathematically precise semantics, of the system under design, and performs extensive analysis with respect to correctness requirements. The appropriate mathematical model for embedded control systems is hybrid systems that combines th ..."
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Cited by 34 (0 self)
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In formal verification, a designer first constructs a model, with mathematically precise semantics, of the system under design, and performs extensive analysis with respect to correctness requirements. The appropriate mathematical model for embedded control systems is hybrid systems that combines the traditional statemachine based models for discrete control with classical differentialequations based models for continuously evolving physical activities. In this article, we briefly review selected existing approaches to formal verification of hybrid systems, along with directions for future research.
Parameterised Boolean Equation Systems
 In Theoretical Computer Science
, 2004
"... Boolean equation system are a useful tool for verifying formulas from modal mucalculus on transition systems (see [18] for an excellent treatment). We are interested in an extension of boolean equation systems with data. This allows to formulate and prove a substantially wider range of properties ..."
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Cited by 21 (9 self)
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Boolean equation system are a useful tool for verifying formulas from modal mucalculus on transition systems (see [18] for an excellent treatment). We are interested in an extension of boolean equation systems with data. This allows to formulate and prove a substantially wider range of properties on much larger and even infinite state systems. In previous works [11, 15] it has been outlined how to transform a modal formula and a process, both containing data, to a socalled parameterised boolean equation system, or equation system for short. In this article we focus on techniques to solve such equation systems.
Symbolic model checking of hybrid systems using template polyhedra
 In TACAS’08  Tools and Algorithms for
, 2008
"... Abstract. We propose techniques for the verification of hybrid systems using template polyhedra, i.e., polyhedra whose inequalities have fixed expressions but with varying constant terms. Given a hybrid system description and a set of template linear expressions as inputs, our technique constructs o ..."
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Cited by 20 (7 self)
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Abstract. We propose techniques for the verification of hybrid systems using template polyhedra, i.e., polyhedra whose inequalities have fixed expressions but with varying constant terms. Given a hybrid system description and a set of template linear expressions as inputs, our technique constructs overapproximations of the reachable states using template polyhedra. Therefore, operations used in symbolic model checking such as intersection, union and postcondition across discrete transitions over template polyhedra can be computed efficiently using template polyhedra without requiring expensive vertex enumeration. Additionally, the verification of hybrid systems requires techniques to handle the continuous dynamics inside discrete modes. We propose a new flowpipe construction algorithm using template polyhedra. Our technique uses higherorder Taylor series expansion to approximate the time trajectories. The terms occurring in the Taylor series expansion are bounded using repeated optimization queries. The location invariant is used to enclose the remainder term of the Taylor series, and thus truncate the expansion. Finally, we have implemented our technique as a part of the tool TimePass for the analysis of affine hybrid automata. 1
Model checking of hybrid systems: From reachability towards stability
 Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control, volume 3927 of LNCS
, 2006
"... Abstract. We call a hybrid system stable if every trajectory inevitably ends up in a given region. Our notion of stability deviates from classical definitions in control theory. In this paper, we present a model checking algorithm for stability in the new sense. The idea of the algorithm is to reduc ..."
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Cited by 19 (3 self)
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Abstract. We call a hybrid system stable if every trajectory inevitably ends up in a given region. Our notion of stability deviates from classical definitions in control theory. In this paper, we present a model checking algorithm for stability in the new sense. The idea of the algorithm is to reduce the stability proof for the whole system to a set of (smaller) proofs for several onemode systems. 1
Synthesizing Switching Logic using Constraint Solving
"... A new approach based on constraint solving techniques was recently proposed for verification of hybrid systems. This approach works by searching for inductive invariants of a given form. In this paper, we extend that work to automatic synthesis of safe hybrid systems. Starting with a multimodal d ..."
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Cited by 19 (11 self)
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A new approach based on constraint solving techniques was recently proposed for verification of hybrid systems. This approach works by searching for inductive invariants of a given form. In this paper, we extend that work to automatic synthesis of safe hybrid systems. Starting with a multimodal dynamical system and a safety property, we present a sound technique for synthesizing a switching logic for changing modes so as to preserve the safety property. By construction, the synthesized hybrid system is wellformed and is guaranteed safe. Our approach is based on synthesizing a controlled invariant that is sufficient to prove safety. The generation of the controlled invariant is cast as a constraint solving problem. When the system, the safety property, and the controlled invariant are all expressed only using polynomials, the generated constraint is an ∃ ∀ formula in the theory of reals, which we solve using SMT solvers. The generated controlled invariant is then used to arrive at the maximally liberal switching logic.