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Probability distributions with summary graph structure
, 2008
"... A joint density of many variables may satisfy a possibly large set of independence statements, called its independence structure. Often the structure of interest is representable by a graph that consists of nodes representing variables and of edges that couple node pairs. We consider joint densities ..."
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Cited by 13 (2 self)
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A joint density of many variables may satisfy a possibly large set of independence statements, called its independence structure. Often the structure of interest is representable by a graph that consists of nodes representing variables and of edges that couple node pairs. We consider joint densities of this type, generated by a stepwise process in which all variables and dependences of interest are included. Otherwise, there are no constraints on the type of variables or on the form of the generating conditional densities. For the joint density that then results after marginalising and conditioning, we derive what we name the summary graph. It is seen to capture precisely the independence structure implied by the generating process, it identifies dependences which remain undistorted due to direct or indirect confounding and it alerts to such, possibly severe distortions in other parametrizations. Summary graphs preserve their form after marginalising and conditioning and they include multivariate regression chain graphs as special cases. We use operators for matrix representations of graphs to derive matrix results and translate these into special types of path. 1. Introduction. Graphical Markov
Sequences of regressions and their independences
 TEST
"... ABSTRACT: Ordered sequences of univariate or multivariate regressions provide statistical models for analysing data from randomized, possibly sequential interventions, from cohort or multiwave panel studies, but also from crosssectional or retrospective studies. Conditional independences are capt ..."
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Cited by 11 (3 self)
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ABSTRACT: Ordered sequences of univariate or multivariate regressions provide statistical models for analysing data from randomized, possibly sequential interventions, from cohort or multiwave panel studies, but also from crosssectional or retrospective studies. Conditional independences are captured by what we name regression graphs, provided the generated distribution shares some properties with a joint Gaussian distribution. Regression graphs extend purely directed, acyclic graphs by two types of undirected graph, one type for components of joint responses and the other for components of the context vector variable. We review the special features and the history of regression graphs, derive criteria to read all implied independences of a regression graph and prove criteria for Markov equivalence that is to judge whether two different graphs imply the same set of independence statements. Knowledge of Markov equivalence provides alternative interpretations of a given sequence of regressions, is essential for machine learning strategies and permits to use the simple graphical criteria of regression graphs on graphs for which the corresponding criteria are in general more complex. Under the known conditions that a Markov equivalent directed acyclic graph exists for any given regression graph, we give a polynomial time algorithm to find one such graph.
Markov properties for mixed graphs
, 2014
"... In this paper, we unify the Markov theory of a variety of different types of graphs used in graphical Markov models by introducing the class of loopless mixed graphs, and show that all independence models induced by mseparation on such graphs are compositional graphoids. We focus in particular on t ..."
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Cited by 9 (1 self)
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In this paper, we unify the Markov theory of a variety of different types of graphs used in graphical Markov models by introducing the class of loopless mixed graphs, and show that all independence models induced by mseparation on such graphs are compositional graphoids. We focus in particular on the subclass of ribbonless graphs which as special cases include undirected graphs, bidirected graphs, and directed acyclic graphs, as well as ancestral graphs and summary graphs. We define maximality of such graphs as well as a pairwise and a global Markov property. We prove that the global and pairwise Markov properties of a maximal ribbonless graph are equivalent for any independence model that is a compositional graphoid.
Traceable Regressions
 INTERNATIONAL STATISTICAL REVIEW (2012), 80, 3, 415–438
, 2012
"... In this paper, we define and study the concept of traceable regressions and apply it to some examples. Traceable regressions are sequences of conditional distributions in joint or single responses for which a corresponding graph captures an independence structure and represents, in addition, conditi ..."
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Cited by 7 (5 self)
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In this paper, we define and study the concept of traceable regressions and apply it to some examples. Traceable regressions are sequences of conditional distributions in joint or single responses for which a corresponding graph captures an independence structure and represents, in addition, conditional dependences that permit the tracing of pathways of dependence. We give the properties needed for transforming these graphs and graphical criteria to decide whether a path in the graph induces a dependence. The much stronger constraints on distributions that are faithful to a graph are compared to those needed for traceable regressions.
Binary distributions of concentric rings
 JOURNAL OF MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS 130 (2014) 252–260
, 2014
"... ..."
Graphical Markov models: overview
, 2015
"... AbstractWe describe how graphical Markov models emerged in the last 40 years, based on three essential concepts that had been developed independently more than a century ago. Sequences of joint or single regressions and their regression graphs are singled out as being the subclass that is best suite ..."
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Cited by 1 (1 self)
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AbstractWe describe how graphical Markov models emerged in the last 40 years, based on three essential concepts that had been developed independently more than a century ago. Sequences of joint or single regressions and their regression graphs are singled out as being the subclass that is best suited for analyzing longitudinal data and for tracing developmental pathways, both in observational and in intervention studies. Interpretations are illustrated using two sets of data. Furthermore, some of the more recent, important results for sequences of regressions are summarized. 1 Some general and historical remarks on the types of model Graphical models aim to describe in concise form the possibly complex interrelations between a set of variables so that key properties can be read directly o ↵ a graph. The central idea is that each variable is represented by a node in a graph. Any pair of nodes may become coupled, that is joined by an edge. Coupled nodes are also said to be adjacent. For many types of graph, a missing edge represents some form of conditional independence between the pair of variables and an edge present can be interpreted as a corresponding conditional dependence. Because the conditioning set may be empty,
MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
"... Classical multivariate statistical methods concern models, distributions and inference based on the Gaussian distribution. These are the topics in the first textbook for mathematical statisticians by T.W. Anderson that was published in 1958 and that appeared as a slightly expanded 3rd edition in 200 ..."
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Classical multivariate statistical methods concern models, distributions and inference based on the Gaussian distribution. These are the topics in the first textbook for mathematical statisticians by T.W. Anderson that was published in 1958 and that appeared as a slightly expanded 3rd edition in 2003. Matrix theory and notation is used there extensively to efficiently derive properties of the multivariate Gaussian or the Wishart distribution, of principal components, of canonical correlation and discriminant analysis and of the general multivariate linear model in which a Gaussian response vector variable Ya has linear leastsquares regression on all components of an explanatory vector variable Yb. In contrast, many methods for analysing sets of observed variables have been developed first within special substantive fields and some or all of the models in a given class were justified in terms of probabilistic and statistical theory much later. Among them are factor analysis, path analysis, structural equation models, and models for which partialleast squares estimation have been proposed. Other multivariate techniques such as cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling have