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78
Resisting Structural Reidentification in Anonymized Social Networks
, 2008
"... We identify privacy risks associated with releasing network data sets and provide an algorithm that mitigates those risks. A network consists of entities connected by links representing relations such as friendship, communication, or shared activity. Maintaining privacy when publishing networked dat ..."
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Cited by 105 (6 self)
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We identify privacy risks associated with releasing network data sets and provide an algorithm that mitigates those risks. A network consists of entities connected by links representing relations such as friendship, communication, or shared activity. Maintaining privacy when publishing networked data is uniquely challenging because an individual’s network context can be used to identify them even if other identifying information is removed. In this paper, we quantify the privacy risks associated with three classes of attacks on the privacy of individuals in networks, based on the knowledge used by the adversary. We show that the risks of these attacks vary greatly based on network structure and size. We propose a novel approach to anonymizing network data that models aggregate network structure and then allows samples to be drawn from that model. The approach guarantees anonymity for network entities while preserving the ability to estimate a wide variety of network measures with relatively little bias.
Differential privacy via wavelet transforms
 In ICDE
, 2010
"... Abstract — Privacy preserving data publishing has attracted considerable research interest in recent years. Among the existing solutions, ɛdifferential privacy provides one of the strongest privacy guarantees. Existing data publishing methods that achieve ɛdifferential privacy, however, offer litt ..."
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Cited by 100 (8 self)
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Abstract — Privacy preserving data publishing has attracted considerable research interest in recent years. Among the existing solutions, ɛdifferential privacy provides one of the strongest privacy guarantees. Existing data publishing methods that achieve ɛdifferential privacy, however, offer little data utility. In particular, if the output dataset is used to answer count queries, the noise in the query answers can be proportional to the number of tuples in the data, which renders the results useless. In this paper, we develop a data publishing technique that ensures ɛdifferential privacy while providing accurate answers for rangecount queries, i.e., count queries where the predicate on each attribute is a range. The core of our solution is a framework that applies wavelet transforms on the data before adding noise to it. We present instantiations of the proposed framework for both ordinal and nominal data, and we provide a theoretical analysis on their privacy and utility guarantees. In an extensive experimental study on both real and synthetic data, we show the effectiveness and efficiency of our solution. I.
Airavat: Security and Privacy for MapReduce
, 2009
"... The cloud computing paradigm, which involves distributed computation on multiple largescale datasets, will become successful only if it ensures privacy, confidentiality, and integrity for the data belonging to individuals and organizations. We present Airavat, a novel integration of decentralized i ..."
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Cited by 82 (2 self)
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The cloud computing paradigm, which involves distributed computation on multiple largescale datasets, will become successful only if it ensures privacy, confidentiality, and integrity for the data belonging to individuals and organizations. We present Airavat, a novel integration of decentralized information flow control (DIFC) and differential privacy that provides strong security and privacy guarantees for MapReduce computations. Airavat allows users to use arbitrary mappers, prevents unauthorized leakage of sensitive data during the computation, and supports automatic declassification of the results when the latter do not violate individual privacy. Airavat minimizes the amount of trusted code in the system and allows users without security expertise to perform privacypreserving computations on sensitive data. Our prototype implementation demonstrates the flexibility of Airavat on a wide variety of case studies. The prototype is efficient, with runtimes on Amazon’s cloud computing infrastructure within 25 % of a MapReduce system with no security.
No Free Lunch in Data Privacy
"... Differential privacy is a powerful tool for providing privacypreserving noisy query answers over statistical databases. It guarantees that the distribution of noisy query answers changes very little with the addition or deletion of any tuple. It is frequently accompanied by popularized claims that i ..."
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Cited by 78 (6 self)
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Differential privacy is a powerful tool for providing privacypreserving noisy query answers over statistical databases. It guarantees that the distribution of noisy query answers changes very little with the addition or deletion of any tuple. It is frequently accompanied by popularized claims that it provides privacy without any assumptions about the data and that it protects against attackers who know all but one record. In this paper we critically analyze the privacy protections offered by differential privacy. First, we use a nofreelunch theorem, which defines nonprivacy as a game, to argue that it is not possible to provide privacy and utility without making assumptions about how the data are generated. Then we explain where assumptions are needed. We argue that privacy of an individual is preserved when it is possible to limit the inference of an attacker about the participation of the individual in the data generating process. This is different from limiting the inference about the presence of a tuple (for example, Bob’s participation in a social network may cause edges to form between pairs of his friends, so that it affects more than just the tuple labeled as “Bob”). The definition of evidence of participation, in turn, depends on how the data are generated – this is how assumptions enter the picture. We explain these ideas using examples from social network research as well as tabular data for which deterministic statistics have been previously released. In both cases the notion of participation varies, the use of differential privacy can lead to privacy breaches, and differential privacy does not always adequately limit inference about participation.
Attacks on privacy and de finetti’s theorem
 In SIGMOD
, 2009
"... In this paper we present a method for reasoning about privacy using the concepts of exchangeability and deFinetti’s theorem. We illustrate the usefulness of this technique by using it to attack a popular data sanitization scheme known as Anatomy. We stress that Anatomy is not the only sanitization s ..."
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Cited by 64 (7 self)
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In this paper we present a method for reasoning about privacy using the concepts of exchangeability and deFinetti’s theorem. We illustrate the usefulness of this technique by using it to attack a popular data sanitization scheme known as Anatomy. We stress that Anatomy is not the only sanitization scheme that is vulnerable to this attack. In fact, any scheme that uses the random worlds model, i.i.d. model, or tupleindependent model needs to be reevaluated. The difference between the attack presented here and others that have been proposed in the past is that we do not need extensive background knowledge. An attacker only needs to know the nonsensitive attributes of one individual in the data, and can carry out this attack just by building a machine learning model over the sanitized data. The reason this attack is successful is that it exploits a subtle flaw in the way prior work computed the probability of disclosure of a sensitive attribute. We demonstrate this theoretically, empirically, and with intuitive examples. We also discuss how this generalizes to many other privacy schemes.
Relationship privacy: Output perturbation for queries with joins
 In ACM Symposium on Principles of Database Systems, 2009. [13] Yossi
"... We study privacypreserving query answering over data containing relationships. A social network is a prime example of such data, where the nodes represent individuals and edges represent relationships. Nearly all interesting queries over social networks involve joins, and for such queries, existing ..."
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Cited by 53 (8 self)
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We study privacypreserving query answering over data containing relationships. A social network is a prime example of such data, where the nodes represent individuals and edges represent relationships. Nearly all interesting queries over social networks involve joins, and for such queries, existing output perturbation algorithms severely distort query answers. We propose an algorithm that significantly improves utility over competing techniques, typically reducing the error bound from polynomial in the number of nodes to polylogarithmic. The algorithm is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to answer such queries with acceptable accuracy, even for worstcase inputs. The improved utility is achieved by relaxing the privacy condition. Instead of ensuring strict differential privacy, we guarantee a weaker (but still quite practical) condition based on adversarial privacy. To explain precisely the nature of our relaxation in privacy, we provide a new result that characterizes the relationship between ǫindistinguishability (a variant of the differential privacy definition) and adversarial privacy, which is of independent interest: an algorithm is ǫindistinguishable iff it is private for a particular class of adversaries (defined precisely herein). Our perturbation algorithm guarantees privacy against adversaries in this class whose prior distribution is numerically bounded.
Accurate Estimation of the Degree Distribution of Private Networks
"... Abstract—We describe an efficient algorithm for releasing a provably private estimate of the degree distribution of a network. The algorithm satisfies a rigorous property of differential privacy, and is also extremely efficient, running on networks of 100 million nodes in a few seconds. Theoretical ..."
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Cited by 48 (6 self)
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Abstract—We describe an efficient algorithm for releasing a provably private estimate of the degree distribution of a network. The algorithm satisfies a rigorous property of differential privacy, and is also extremely efficient, running on networks of 100 million nodes in a few seconds. Theoretical analysis shows that the error scales linearly with the number of unique degrees, whereas the error of conventional techniques scales linearly with the number of nodes. We complement the theoretical analysis with a thorough empirical analysis on real and synthetic graphs, showing that the algorithm’s variance and bias is low, that the error diminishes as the size of the input graph increases, and that common analyses like fitting a powerlaw can be carried out very accurately. Keywordsprivacy; social networks; privacypreserving data mining; differential privacy. I.
Differential privacy for statistics: What we know and what we want to learn
, 2009
"... We motivate and review the definition of differential privacy, survey some results on differentially private statistical estimators, and outline a research agenda. This survey is based on two presentations given by the authors at an NCHS/CDC sponsored workshop on data privacy in May 2008. ..."
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Cited by 44 (1 self)
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We motivate and review the definition of differential privacy, survey some results on differentially private statistical estimators, and outline a research agenda. This survey is based on two presentations given by the authors at an NCHS/CDC sponsored workshop on data privacy in May 2008.
Data mining with differential privacy
 In KDD 2010
, 2010
"... We consider the problem of data mining with formal privacy guarantees, given a data access interface based on the differential privacy framework. Differential privacy requires that computations be insensitive to changes in any particular individual’s record, thereby restricting data leaks through ..."
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Cited by 43 (0 self)
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We consider the problem of data mining with formal privacy guarantees, given a data access interface based on the differential privacy framework. Differential privacy requires that computations be insensitive to changes in any particular individual’s record, thereby restricting data leaks through the results. The privacy preserving interface ensures unconditionally safe access to the data and does not require from the data miner any expertise in privacy. However, as we show in the paper, a naive utilization of the interface to construct privacy preserving data mining algorithms could lead to inferior data mining results. We address this problem by considering the privacy and the algorithmic requirements simultaneously, focusing on decision tree induction as a sample application. The privacy mechanism has a profound effect on the performance of the methods chosen by the data miner. We demonstrate that this choice could make the difference between an accurate classifier and a completely useless one. Moreover, an improved algorithm can achieve the same level of accuracy and privacy as the naive implementation but with an order of magnitude fewer learning samples.
Differentially Private Data Cubes: Optimizing Noise Sources and Consistency
"... Data cubes play an essential role in data analysis and decision support. In a data cube, data from a fact table is aggregated on subsets of the table’s dimensions, forming a collection of smaller tables called cuboids. When the fact table includes sensitive data such as salary or diagnosis, publishi ..."
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Cited by 40 (3 self)
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Data cubes play an essential role in data analysis and decision support. In a data cube, data from a fact table is aggregated on subsets of the table’s dimensions, forming a collection of smaller tables called cuboids. When the fact table includes sensitive data such as salary or diagnosis, publishing even a subset of its cuboids may compromise individuals ’ privacy. In this paper, we address this problem using differential privacy (DP), which provides provable privacy guarantees for individuals by adding noise to query answers. We choose an initial subset of cuboids to compute directly from the fact table, injecting DP noise as usual; and then compute the remaining cuboids from the initial set. Given a fixed privacy guarantee, we show that it is NPhard to choose the initial set of cuboids so that the maximal noise over all published cuboids is minimized, or so that the number of cuboids with noise below a given threshold (precise cuboids) is maximized. We provide an efficient procedure with running time polynomial in the number of cuboids to select the initial set of cuboids, such that the maximal noise in all published cuboids will be within a factor (ln L  +1) 2 of the optimal, where L  is the number of cuboids to be published, or the number of precise cuboids will be within a factor (1 − 1/e) of the optimal. We also show how to enforce consistency in the published cuboids while simultaneously improving their utility (reducing error). In an empirical evaluation on real and synthetic data, we report the amounts of error of different publishing algorithms, and show that our approaches outperform baselines significantly.