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Optimal resilient sorting and searching in the presence of memory faults
 IN PROC. 33RD INTERNATIONAL COLLOQUIUM ON AUTOMATA, LANGUAGES AND PROGRAMMING, VOLUME 4051 OF LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 2006
"... We investigate the problem of reliable computation in the presence of faults that may arbitrarily corrupt memory locations. In this framework, we consider the problems of sorting and searching in optimal time while tolerating the largest possible number of memory faults. In particular, we design an ..."
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Cited by 17 (5 self)
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We investigate the problem of reliable computation in the presence of faults that may arbitrarily corrupt memory locations. In this framework, we consider the problems of sorting and searching in optimal time while tolerating the largest possible number of memory faults. In particular, we design an O(n log n) time sorting algorithm that can optimally tolerate up to O ( √ n log n) memory faults. In the special case of integer sorting, we present an algorithm with linear expected running time that can tolerate O ( √ n) faults. We also present a randomized searching algorithm that can optimally tolerate up to O(log n) memory faults in O(log n) expected time, and an almost optimal deterministic searching algorithm that can tolerate O((log n) 1−ǫ) faults, for any small positive constant ǫ, in O(log n) worstcase time. All these results improve over previous bounds.
Resilient dictionaries
, 2007
"... We address the problem of designing data structures in the presence of faults that may arbitrarily corrupt memory locations. More precisely, we assume that an adaptive adversary can arbitrarily overwrite the content of up to δ memory locations, that corrupted locations cannot be detected, and that o ..."
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Cited by 7 (3 self)
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We address the problem of designing data structures in the presence of faults that may arbitrarily corrupt memory locations. More precisely, we assume that an adaptive adversary can arbitrarily overwrite the content of up to δ memory locations, that corrupted locations cannot be detected, and that only O(1) memory locations are safe. In this framework, we call a data structure resilient if it is able to operate correctly (at least) on the set of uncorrupted values. We present a resilient dictionary, implementing search, insert and delete operations. Our dictionary has O(log n + δ) expected amortized time per operation, and O(n) space complexity, where n denotes the current number of keys in the dictionary. We also describe a deterministic resilient dictionary, with the same amortized cost per operation over a sequence of at least δ ǫ operations, where ǫ> 0 is an arbitrary constant. Finally, we show that any resilient comparisonbased dictionary must take Ω(log n+δ) expected time per search. Our results are achieved by means of simple, new techniques, which might be of independent interest for the design of other resilient algorithms.
Counting in the Presence of Memory Faults
"... Abstract. The faulty memory RAM presented by Finocchi and Italiano [1] is a variant of the RAM model where the content of any memory cell can get corrupted at any time, and corrupted cells cannot be distinguished from uncorrupted cells. An upper bound, δ, on the number of corruptions and O(1) reliab ..."
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Abstract. The faulty memory RAM presented by Finocchi and Italiano [1] is a variant of the RAM model where the content of any memory cell can get corrupted at any time, and corrupted cells cannot be distinguished from uncorrupted cells. An upper bound, δ, on the number of corruptions and O(1) reliable memory cells are provided. In this paper we investigate the fundamental problem of counting in faulty memory. Keeping many reliable counters in the faulty memory is easily done by replicating the value of each counter Θ(δ) times and paying Θ(δ) time every time a counter is queried or incremented. In this paper we decrease the expensive increment cost to o(δ) and present upper and lower bound tradeoffs decreasing the increment time at the cost of the accuracy of the counters. 1
EFFICIENT AND ERRORCORRECTING DATA STRUCTURES FOR MEMBERSHIP AND POLYNOMIAL EVALUATION
 SUBMITTED TO THE SYMPOSIUM ON THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE
"... We construct efficient data structures that are resilient against a constant fraction of adversarial noise. Our model requires that the decoder answers most queries correctly with high probability and for the remaining queries, the decoder with high probability either answers correctly or declares “ ..."
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Cited by 5 (1 self)
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We construct efficient data structures that are resilient against a constant fraction of adversarial noise. Our model requires that the decoder answers most queries correctly with high probability and for the remaining queries, the decoder with high probability either answers correctly or declares “don’t know.” Furthermore, if there is no noise on the data structure, it answers all queries correctly with high probability. Our model is the common generalization of an errorcorrecting data structure model proposed recently by de Wolf, and the notion of “relaxed locally decodable codes” developed in the PCP literature. We measure the efficiency of a data structure in terms of its length (the number of bits in its representation), and queryanswering time, measured by the number of bitprobes to the (possibly corrupted) representation. We obtain results for the following two data structure problems: • (Membership) Store a subset S of size at most s from a universe of size n such that membership queries can be answered efficiently, i.e., decide if a given element from the universe is in S. We construct an errorcorrecting data structure for this problem with length nearly linear in s log n that answers membership queries with O(1) bitprobes. This nearly matches the asymptotically optimal parameters for the noiseless case: length O(s log n) and one bitprobe, due to
ErrorCorrecting Data Structures
, 2008
"... We study data structures in the presence of adversarial noise. We want to encode a given object in a succinct data structure that enables us to efficiently answer specific queries about the object, even if the data structure has been corrupted by a constant fraction of errors. This model is the comm ..."
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Cited by 4 (1 self)
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We study data structures in the presence of adversarial noise. We want to encode a given object in a succinct data structure that enables us to efficiently answer specific queries about the object, even if the data structure has been corrupted by a constant fraction of errors. This model is the common generalization of (static) data structures and locally decodable errorcorrecting codes. The main issue is the tradeoff between the space used by the data structure and the time (number of probes) needed to answer a query about the encoded object. We prove a number of upper and lower bounds on various natural errorcorrecting data structure problems. In particular, we show that the optimal length of errorcorrecting data structures for the Membership problem (where we want to store subsets of size s from a universe of size n) is closely related to the optimal length of locally decodable codes for sbit strings. 1
Lossless FaultTolerant Data Structures with Additive Overhead
"... Abstract. We develop the first dynamic data structures that tolerate δ memory faults, lose no data, and incur only an Õ(δ) additive overhead in overall space and time per operation. We obtain such data structures for arrays, linked lists, binary search trees, interval trees, predecessor search, and ..."
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Abstract. We develop the first dynamic data structures that tolerate δ memory faults, lose no data, and incur only an Õ(δ) additive overhead in overall space and time per operation. We obtain such data structures for arrays, linked lists, binary search trees, interval trees, predecessor search, and suffix trees. Like previous data structures, δ must be known in advance, but we show how to restore pristine state in linear time, in parallel with queries, making δ just a bound on the rate of memory faults. Our data structures require Θ(δ) words of safe memory during an operation, which may not be theoretically necessary but seems a practical assumption. 1
Fault Tolerant External Memory Algorithms
"... Abstract. Algorithms dealing with massive data sets are usually designed for I/Oefficiency, often captured by the I/O model by Aggarwal and Vitter. Another aspect of dealing with massive data is how to deal with memory faults, e.g. captured by the adversary based faulty memory RAM by Finocchi and I ..."
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Cited by 3 (2 self)
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Abstract. Algorithms dealing with massive data sets are usually designed for I/Oefficiency, often captured by the I/O model by Aggarwal and Vitter. Another aspect of dealing with massive data is how to deal with memory faults, e.g. captured by the adversary based faulty memory RAM by Finocchi and Italiano. However, current fault tolerant algorithms do not scale beyond the internal memory. In this paper we investigate for the first time the connection between I/Oefficiency in the I/O model and fault tolerance in the faulty memory RAM, and we assume that both memory and disk are unreliable. We show a lower bound on the number of I/Os required for any deterministic dictionary that is resilient to memory faults. We design a static and a dynamic deterministic dictionary with optimal query performance as well as an optimal sorting algorithm and an optimal priority queue. Finally, we consider scenarios where only cells in memory or only cells on disk are corruptible and separate randomized and deterministic dictionaries in the latter. 1
Data Structures: Sequence Problems, Range Queries and Fault Tolerance
, 2010
"... The focus of this dissertation is on algorithms, in particular data structures that give provably efficient solutions for sequence analysis problems, range queries, and fault tolerant computing. The work presented in this dissertation is divided into three parts. In Part I we consider algorithms for ..."
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The focus of this dissertation is on algorithms, in particular data structures that give provably efficient solutions for sequence analysis problems, range queries, and fault tolerant computing. The work presented in this dissertation is divided into three parts. In Part I we consider algorithms for a range of sequence analysis problems that have risen from applications in pattern matching, bioinformatics, and data mining. On a high level, each problem is defined by a function and some constraints and the job at hand is to locate subsequences that score high with this function and are not invalidated by the constraints. Many variants and similar problems have been proposed leading to several different approaches and algorithms. We consider problems where the function is the sum of the elements in the sequence and the constraints only bound the length of the subsequences considered. We give optimal algorithms for several variants of the problem based on a simple idea and classic algorithms and data structures. In Part II we consider range query data structures. This a category of
Resilient dynamic programming
, 2015
"... We investigate the design of dynamic programming algorithms in unreliable memories, i.e., in the presence of errors that lead the logical state of some bits to be read differently from how they were last written. Assuming that a limited number of memory faults can be inserted at runtime by an adver ..."
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We investigate the design of dynamic programming algorithms in unreliable memories, i.e., in the presence of errors that lead the logical state of some bits to be read differently from how they were last written. Assuming that a limited number of memory faults can be inserted at runtime by an adversary with unbounded computational power, we obtain the first resilient algorithms for a broad range of dynamic programming problems, devising a general framework that can be applied to both iterative and recursive implementations. Besides all local dependency problems, where updates to table entries are determined by the contents of neighboring cells, we also settle challenging nonlocal problems, such as allpairs shortest paths and matrix multiplication. All our algorithms are correct with high probability and match the running time of their standard nonresilient counterparts while tolerating a polynomial number of faults. The recursive algorithms are also cacheefficient and can tolerate faults at any level of the memory hierarchy. Our results exploit a careful combination of data replication, majority techniques, fingerprint computations, and lazy fault detection. To cope with the complex data access patterns induced by some of our algorithms, we also devise amplified fingerprints, which might be of independent interest in the design of resilient algorithms for different problems.
ResilientKd Trees:KMeans in Space Revisited
"... Abstract—We develop a kd tree variant that is resilient to a predescribed number of memory corruptions while still using only linear space. We show how to use this data structure in the context of clustering in highradiation environments and demonstrate that our approach leads to a significantly ..."
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Abstract—We develop a kd tree variant that is resilient to a predescribed number of memory corruptions while still using only linear space. We show how to use this data structure in the context of clustering in highradiation environments and demonstrate that our approach leads to a significantly higher resiliency rate compared to previous results. I.