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**1 - 4**of**4**### Fact retrieval deficits in low achieving children and children with mathematical learning disability

- JOURNAL OF LEARNING DISABILITIES
, 2004

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### SHORT REPORT Early predictors of middle school fraction knowledge

"... Recent findings that earlier fraction knowledge predicts later mathematics achievement raise the question of what predicts later fraction knowledge. Analyses of longitudinal data indicated that whole number magnitude knowledge in first grade predicted knowledge of fraction magnitudes in middle schoo ..."

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Recent findings that earlier fraction knowledge predicts later mathematics achievement raise the question of what predicts later fraction knowledge. Analyses of longitudinal data indicated that whole number magnitude knowledge in first grade predicted knowledge of fraction magnitudes in middle school, controlling for whole number arithmetic proficiency, domain general cognitive abilities, parental income and education, race, and gender. Similarly, knowledge of whole number arithmetic in first grade predicted knowledge of fraction arithmetic in middle school, controlling for whole number magnitude knowledge in first grade and the other control variables. In contrast, neither type of early whole number knowledge uniquely predicted middle school reading achievement. We discuss the implications of these findings for theories of numerical development and for improving mathematics learning.

### sc Go Developmental dyscalculia

"... to t ere y an mat sing nde is a lea betwee en use ic lear lties; M descr often learning, or number sense (Butterworth, 2005), whereas the terms impairment of mathematical skills of developmental origin and explore the effects of using different diagnostic criteria on preva-lence and gender ratio in ..."

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to t ere y an mat sing nde is a lea betwee en use ic lear lties; M descr often learning, or number sense (Butterworth, 2005), whereas the terms impairment of mathematical skills of developmental origin and explore the effects of using different diagnostic criteria on preva-lence and gender ratio in a UK population of 1004 children aged 7e10 years. discrepancy definition, in which maths performance scores were pancy ’ value) and 5). Second, others impairment using e range of cutoffs d in Fig. 1. These the 3rd percentile to 0.68 SD below the mean). Third, DD has also been defined using a two year achievement delay as a diagnostic criterion, that is, children were categorised as having DD if their mathematics performance was equal to or below the average level of children two years younger