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30
Confirming Configurations in EFSM Testing
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
, 2004
"... In this paper, we investigate the problem of configuration verification for the extended FSM (EFSM) model. This is an extension of the FSM state identification problem. Specifically, given a configuration ("state vector") and an arbitrary set of configurations, determine an input sequenc ..."
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Cited by 29 (2 self)
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In this paper, we investigate the problem of configuration verification for the extended FSM (EFSM) model. This is an extension of the FSM state identification problem. Specifically, given a configuration ("state vector") and an arbitrary set of configurations, determine an input sequence such that the EFSM in the given configuration produces an output sequence different from that of the configurations in the given set or at least in a maximal proper subset. Such a sequence can be used in a test case to confirm the destination configuration of a particular EFSM transition. We demonstrate that this problem could be reduced to the EFSM traversal problem, so that the existing methods and tools developed in the context of model checking become applicable. We introduce notions of EFSM projections and products and, based on these notions, we develop a theoretical framework for determining configurationconfirming sequences. The proposed approach is illustrated on a realistic example.
Testing deterministic implementations from nondeterministic fsm specifications. In:
 Proc. of the 9th Intern Workshop on Protocol Test Systems.
, 1996
"... Abstract In this paper, conformance testing of protocols specified as nondeterministic finite state machines is considered. Protocol implementations are assumed to be deterministic. In this testing scenario, the conformance relation becomes a preorder, socalled reduction relation between FSMs. The ..."
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Cited by 21 (1 self)
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Abstract In this paper, conformance testing of protocols specified as nondeterministic finite state machines is considered. Protocol implementations are assumed to be deterministic. In this testing scenario, the conformance relation becomes a preorder, socalled reduction relation between FSMs. The reduction relation requires that an implementation machine produces a (sub)set of output sequences that can be produced by its specification machine in response to every input sequence. A method for deriving tests with respect to the reduction relation with full fault coverage for deterministic implementations is proposed based on certain properties of the product of specification and implementation machines.
Confirming configurations in EFSM
 In Proc. IFIP Joint Int’l Conf. FORTE/PSTV
, 1999
"... In this paper we investigate the problem of configuration distinguishability for the EFSM model, specifically, given a configuration and an arbitrary set of configurations, determine an input sequence such that the EFSM in the given configuration produces an output sequence different from that of th ..."
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Cited by 11 (3 self)
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In this paper we investigate the problem of configuration distinguishability for the EFSM model, specifically, given a configuration and an arbitrary set of configurations, determine an input sequence such that the EFSM in the given configuration produces an output sequence different from that of the configurations in the given set or at least in a maximal proper subset. Such a sequence can be used in a test case to confirm the destination configuration. We demonstrate that the distinguishability problem could be reduced to the EFSM traversal problem, so that the existing methods and tools developed in the context of model checking become applicable. The theoretical framework for determining configurationconfirming sequences based on projections and products of EFSMs is presented. Our approach can be implemented in a number of heuristic test derivation strategies.
Scalable and Effective Test Generation for Access Control Systems that Employ RBAC Policies
, 2009
"... Conformance testing procedures for generating tests from the finite state model representation of Role Based Access Control (RBAC) policies are proposed and evaluated. A test suite generated using one of these procedures has excellent fault detection ability but is astronomically large. Two approach ..."
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Cited by 11 (1 self)
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Conformance testing procedures for generating tests from the finite state model representation of Role Based Access Control (RBAC) policies are proposed and evaluated. A test suite generated using one of these procedures has excellent fault detection ability but is astronomically large. Two approaches to reduce the size of the generated test suite were investigated. One is based on a set of six heuristics and the other directly generates a test suite from the finite state model using random selection of paths in the policy model. A fault model specific to the implementations of RBAC systems was used to evaluate the fault detection effectiveness of the generated test suites; the model incorporates both mutationbased and malicious faults. Empirical studies revealed that adequacy assessment of test suites using faults that correspond to firstorder mutations may lead to a false sense of confidence in the correctness of policy implementation. The second approach to test suite generation, combined with one or more heuristics, is most effective in the detection of both firstorder mutation and malicious faults and generates a significantly smaller test suite than the one generated directly from the finite state models.
Mutation Testing Applied to Validate SDL Specifications
 in TestCom. 2004
"... Abstract. Mutation Testing is an errorbased criterion that provides mechanisms to evaluate the quality of a test set and/or to generate test sets. This criterion, originally proposed to program testing, has also been applied to specification testing. In this paper, we propose the application of Mu ..."
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Cited by 11 (1 self)
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Abstract. Mutation Testing is an errorbased criterion that provides mechanisms to evaluate the quality of a test set and/or to generate test sets. This criterion, originally proposed to program testing, has also been applied to specification testing. In this paper, we propose the application of Mutation Testing for testing SDL specifications. We define a mutant operator set for SDL that intends to model errors related to the behavioral aspect of the processes, the communication among processes, the structure of the specification and some intrinsic characteristics of SDL. A testing strategy to apply the mutant operators to test SDL specifications is proposed. We illustrate our approach using the AlternatingBit protocol.
A Technique to Generate Feasible Tests for Communications Systems with Multiple Timers
 IEEE/ACM TRANS. NETW
, 2003
"... We present a new model for testing realtime protocols with multiple timers, which captures complex timing dependencies by using simple linear expressions involving timerrelated variables. This new modeling technique, combined with the algorithms to eliminate inconsistencies, allows generation of fe ..."
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Cited by 8 (3 self)
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We present a new model for testing realtime protocols with multiple timers, which captures complex timing dependencies by using simple linear expressions involving timerrelated variables. This new modeling technique, combined with the algorithms to eliminate inconsistencies, allows generation of feasible test sequences without compromising their fault coverage. The model is specifically designed for testing to avoid performing full reachability analysis, and to control the growth of the number of test scenarios. Based on extended finite state machines, it is applicable to languages such as SDL, VHDL, and Estelle. The technique models a realistic testing framework in which each I/O exchange takes a certain time to realize and timers can be arbitrarily started or stopped. A software tool implementing this technique is used to generate test cases for the US Army wireless standard MILSTD 188220.
Automating the process of test derivation from SDL specifications
 In Cavalli, Sarma [8
, 1997
"... In this paper, we present a set of automated tools for the development of conformance tests following a methodology based on a partial unfolding of a given SDL specification, describing the behavior of the system under test. The methodology relies on FSMbased test derivation methods which focus on ..."
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Cited by 8 (0 self)
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In this paper, we present a set of automated tools for the development of conformance tests following a methodology based on a partial unfolding of a given SDL specification, describing the behavior of the system under test. The methodology relies on FSMbased test derivation methods which focus on the fault coverage aspect of testing. The tool kit offers to the test designer a number of options for achieving different levels of fault coverage. In particular, it provides support for partial specifications, grouped transitions and timers. The tests, which are generated in SDL or in TTCN must be completed by hand concerning certain aspects related to signal parameters, however, most of these adjustments are relatively straightforward and certain parts of the original SDL specification can be reused without change. We also report on our experience of using the tool kit for the development of a test suite for the ATM PNNI signalling protocol. 1.
On Test Derivation from Partial Specifications
, 2000
"... The paper addresses the problem of test derivation from partially defined specifications. A specification is modeled by an Input/Output FSM such that transitions from some states on some inputs are not specified (a partial FSM). ..."
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Cited by 4 (1 self)
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The paper addresses the problem of test derivation from partially defined specifications. A specification is modeled by an Input/Output FSM such that transitions from some states on some inputs are not specified (a partial FSM).
An Integrated SearchBased Approach for Automatic Testing from Extended Finite State Machine (EFSM) Models
"... Context: The extended finite state machine (EFSM) is a modelling approach that has been used to represent a wide range of systems. When testing from an EFSM, it is normal to use a test criterion such as transition coverage. Such test criteria are often expressed in terms of transition paths (TPs) th ..."
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Context: The extended finite state machine (EFSM) is a modelling approach that has been used to represent a wide range of systems. When testing from an EFSM, it is normal to use a test criterion such as transition coverage. Such test criteria are often expressed in terms of transition paths (TPs) through an EFSM. Despite the popularity of EFSMs, testing from an EFSM is difficult for two main reasons: path feasibility and path input sequence generation. The path feasibility problem concerns generating paths that are feasible whereas the path input sequence generation problem is to find an input sequence that can traverse a feasible path. Objective: While searchbased approaches have been used in test automation, there has been relatively little work that uses them when testing from an EFSM. In this paper, we propose an integrated searchbased approach to automate testing from an EFSM. Method: The approach has two phases, the aim of the first phase being to produce a feasible TP (FTP) while the second phase searches for an input sequence to trigger this TP. The first phase uses a Genetic Algorithm whose fitness function is a TP feasibility metric based on dataflow dependence. The second phase uses a Genetic Algorithm whose fitness function is based on a combination of a branch distance function and approach level. Results: Experimental results using five EFSMs found the first phase to be effective in generating FTPs with a success rate of approximately 96.6%. Furthermore, the proposed input sequence generator could trigger all the generated feasible TPs (success rate = 100%). Conclusion: The results derived from the experiment demonstrate that the proposed approach is effective in automating testing from an EFSM.
On the design of a submodule based on the input/output FSM model
, 1998
"... This paper addresses the problem of designing a submodule of a given system of communicating input/output FSMs. The problem may be formulated mathematically by the equation CXA, where C represents the specification of the known part of the system, called the context, A represents the specification ..."
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Cited by 2 (2 self)
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This paper addresses the problem of designing a submodule of a given system of communicating input/output FSMs. The problem may be formulated mathematically by the equation CXA, where C represents the specification of the known part of the system, called the context, A represents the specification of the whole system, X represents the specification of the submodule to be constructed, is a composition operator and  is the trace equivalence relation. The set of solutions to the equation (if they exist) can be represented as a subset of the set of Dreductions of a proper nondeterministic FSM. The algorithm for finding this nondeterministic FSM is based on the use of a chaos machine and the construction of a machine which separates the permissible and the forbidden traces. After removing all the forbidden traces, we obtain the soughtafter machine. Due to the existence of livelocks, some reductions of the obtained machine are not solutions to the equation since their composition with...