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32
Observational logic
 IN ALGEBRAIC METHODOLOGY AND SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY (AMAST'98
, 1999
"... We present an institution of observational logic suited for statebased systems specifications. The institution is based on the notion of an observational signature (which incorporates the declaration of a distinguished set of observers) and on observational algebras whose operations are required ..."
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Cited by 57 (10 self)
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We present an institution of observational logic suited for statebased systems specifications. The institution is based on the notion of an observational signature (which incorporates the declaration of a distinguished set of observers) and on observational algebras whose operations are required to be compatible with the indistinguishability relation determined by the given observers. In particular, we introduce a homomorphism concept for observational algebras which adequately expresses observational relationships between algebras. Then we consider a flexible notion of observational signature morphism which guarantees the satisfaction condition of institutions w.r.t. observational satisfaction of arbitrary firstorder sentences. From the proof theoretical point of view we construct a sound and complete proof system for the observational consequence relation. Then we consider structured observational specifications and we provide a sound and complete proof system for such specifications by using a general, institutionindependent result of [6].
Foundations of Heterogeneous Specification
"... We provide a semantic basis for heterogeneous specifications that not only involve different logics, but also different kinds of translations between these. We show that Grothendieck institutions based on spans of (co)morphisms can serve as a unifying framework providing a simple but powerful semant ..."
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Cited by 17 (3 self)
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We provide a semantic basis for heterogeneous specifications that not only involve different logics, but also different kinds of translations between these. We show that Grothendieck institutions based on spans of (co)morphisms can serve as a unifying framework providing a simple but powerful semantics for heterogeneous specification.
CASL: From Semantics to Tools
 TACAS 2000, LNCS 1785
, 2000
"... CASL, the common algebraic specification language, has been developed as a language that subsumes many previous algebraic specification frameworks and also provides tool interoperability. CASL is a complex language with a complete formal semantics. It is therefore a challenge to build good tools for ..."
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Cited by 17 (10 self)
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CASL, the common algebraic specification language, has been developed as a language that subsumes many previous algebraic specification frameworks and also provides tool interoperability. CASL is a complex language with a complete formal semantics. It is therefore a challenge to build good tools for CASL. In this work, we present and discuss the Bremen HOLCASL system, which provides parsing, static checking, conversion to LaTeX and theorem proving for CASL specifications. To make tool construction manageable, we have followed some guidelines: reuse of existing tools, interoperability of tools developed at different sites, and construction of generic tools that can be used for several languages. We describe the structure of and the experiences with our tool and discuss how the guidelines work in practice.
Observational Logic, ConstructorBased Logic, and their Duality
, 2002
"... Observability and reachability are important concepts for formal software development. While observability concepts are used to specify the required observable behavior of a program or system, reachability concepts are used to describe the underlying data in terms of datatype constructors. In this p ..."
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Cited by 15 (1 self)
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Observability and reachability are important concepts for formal software development. While observability concepts are used to specify the required observable behavior of a program or system, reachability concepts are used to describe the underlying data in terms of datatype constructors. In this paper we first reconsider the observational logic institution which provides a logical framework for dealing with observability. Then we develop in a completely analogous way the constructorbased logic institution which formalizes a novel treatment of reachability. Both institutions are tailored to capture the semantically correct realizations of a specification from either the observational or the reachability point of view. We show that there is a methodological and even formal duality between both frameworks. In particular, we establish a correspondence between observer operations and datatype constructors, observational and constructorbased algebras, fully abstract and reachable algebras, and observational and inductive consequences of specifications. The formal duality between the observability and reachability concepts is established in a categorytheoretic setting.
Structured Theories and Institutions
, 1999
"... Category theory provides an excellent foundation for studying structured specifications and their composition. For example, theories can be structured together in a diagram, and their composition can be obtained as a colimit. There is, however, a growing awareness, both in theory and in specificatio ..."
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Cited by 15 (4 self)
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Category theory provides an excellent foundation for studying structured specifications and their composition. For example, theories can be structured together in a diagram, and their composition can be obtained as a colimit. There is, however, a growing awareness, both in theory and in specification practice, that structured theories should not be viewed just as the "scaffolding" used to build unstructured theories: they should become firstclass citizens in the specification process. Given a logic formalized as an institution I, we therefore ask whether there is a good definition of the category of Istructured theories, and whether they can be naturally regarded as the ordinary theories of an appropriate institution S(I) generalizing the original institution I. We answer both question in the affirmative, and study good properties of the institution I inherited by S(I). We show that, under natural conditions, a number of important properties are indeed inherited, including cocompleteness of the category of theories, liberality, and extension of the basic framework by freeness constraints. The results presented here have been used as a foundation for the module algebra of the Maude language, and seem promising as a semantic basis for a generic module algebra that could be both specified and executed within the logical framework of rewriting logic. 1
Heterogeneous development graphs and heterogeneous borrowing
 In M. Nielsen (Ed.) Foundations of Software Science and Computation Structures (FOSSACS02
, 2002
"... Abstract. Development graphs are a tool for dealing with structured specifications in a formal program development in order to ease the management of change and reusing proofs. Often, different aspects of a software system have to be specified in different logics, since the construction of a huge lo ..."
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Cited by 13 (7 self)
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Abstract. Development graphs are a tool for dealing with structured specifications in a formal program development in order to ease the management of change and reusing proofs. Often, different aspects of a software system have to be specified in different logics, since the construction of a huge logic covering all needed features would be too complex to be feasible. Therefore, we introduce heterogeneous development graphs as a means to cope with heterogeneous specifications. We cover both the semantics and the proof theory of heterogeneous development graphs. A proof calculus can be obtained either by combining proof calculi for the individual logics, or by representing these in some “universal ” logic like higherorder logic in a coherent way and then “borrowing” its calculus for the heterogeneous language. 1
Behavioral institutions and refinements in generalized hidden logics
 J. Univers. Comput. Sci
, 2006
"... Abstract: We investigate behavioral institutions and refinements in the context of the object oriented paradigm. The novelty of our approach is the application of generalized abstract algebraic logic theory of hidden heterogeneous deductive systems (called hidden klogics) to the algebraic specifica ..."
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Cited by 8 (6 self)
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Abstract: We investigate behavioral institutions and refinements in the context of the object oriented paradigm. The novelty of our approach is the application of generalized abstract algebraic logic theory of hidden heterogeneous deductive systems (called hidden klogics) to the algebraic specification of object oriented programs. This is achieved through the Leibniz congruence relation and its combinatorial properties. We reformulate the notion of hidden klogic as well as the behavioral logic of a hidden klogic as institutions. We define refinements as hidden signature morphisms having the extra property of preserving logical consequence. A stricter class of refinements, the ones that preserve behavioral consequence, is studied. We establish sufficient conditions for an ordinary signature morphism to be a behavioral refinement.
Heterogeneous Logical Environments for distributed specifications
"... We use the theory of institutions to capture the concept of a heterogeneous logical environment as a number of institutions linked by institution morphisms and comorphisms. We discuss heterogeneous specifications built in such environments, with interinstitutional specification morphisms based on ..."
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Cited by 7 (3 self)
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We use the theory of institutions to capture the concept of a heterogeneous logical environment as a number of institutions linked by institution morphisms and comorphisms. We discuss heterogeneous specifications built in such environments, with interinstitutional specification morphisms based on both institution morphisms and comorphisms. We distinguish three kinds of heterogeneity: (1) specifications in logical environments with universal logic (2) heterogeneous specifications focused at a particular logic, and (3) heterogeneous specifications distributed over a number of logics.
Generalized Interpolation in CASL
 Information Processing Letter, 76:19–24
, 2000
"... In this paper we consider the partial manysorted firstorder logic and its extension to the subsorted partial manysorted firstorder logic that underly the Casl specification formalism. First we present counterexamples showing that the generalization of the Craig Interpolation Property does not h ..."
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Cited by 5 (0 self)
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In this paper we consider the partial manysorted firstorder logic and its extension to the subsorted partial manysorted firstorder logic that underly the Casl specification formalism. First we present counterexamples showing that the generalization of the Craig Interpolation Property does not hold for these logics in general (i.e., with respect to arbitrary signature morphisms). Then we formulate conditions under which the generalization of the Craig Interpolation Property holds for the first logic.