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A Power Aware Minimum Connected Dominating Set for Wireless Sensor Networks
 Journal of Networks
, 2009
"... Abstract Connected Dominating Set (CDS) problem in unit disk graph has a significant impact on an efficient design of routing protocols in wireless sensor networks. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed for finding Minimum Connected Dominating Set (MCDS) using Dominating Set. Dominating Sets are ..."
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Abstract Connected Dominating Set (CDS) problem in unit disk graph has a significant impact on an efficient design of routing protocols in wireless sensor networks. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed for finding Minimum Connected Dominating Set (MCDS) using Dominating Set. Dominating Sets are connected by using Steiner tree. The algorithm goes through three phases. In first phase Dominating Sets are found, in second phase connectors are identified, connected through Steiner tree. In third phase the CDS obtained in second phase is pruned to obtain a MCDS. MCDS so constructed needs to adapt to the continual topology changes due to deactivation of a node due to exhaustion of battery power. These topological changes due to power constraints are taken care by a local repair algorithm that reconstructs the MCDS i.e. Power Aware MCDS, using only neighbourhood information. Simulation results indicate both the heuristics are very efficient and result in near optimal MCDS. Index Terms Connected Dominating Set, topology, virtual backbone, wireless sensor networks. away from an element of the subset forms a dominating set S. A connected dominating set (CDS) C of G is a dominating set S in which all the elements are connected i.e. it induces a connected graph. The nodes in C are called dominators and the other nodes which are one hop away from C are dominatees. To minimize the number of hops, the minimum CDS is chosen as the backbone.. The backbone is the smallest CDS and every node is adjacent to this virtual backbone. Once data is received by a dominator, it is relayed through the MCDS towards the sink for minimum hop communication. Since the nodes have equal transmission range, the CDS has to be determined for Unit Disk Graph (UDG). The figures of CDS backbone and its UDG can be shown in Figure 1a and in figure 1b respectively. The problem is known to be NPhard and requires heuristics for the determination of the CDS [2].
An approximation algorithm for connected dominating set in ad hoc networks
 Proc. of International Workshop on Theoretical Aspects of Wireless Ad Hoc, Sensor, and PeertoPeer Networks (TAWN
, 2004
"... The construction of a virtual backbone for ad hoc networks is modelled by connected dominating set (CDS) in unitdisk graphs. This paper introduces a novel idea to compute CDS effectively our algorithm does not include the members of an existing maximal independent set (MIS) even though it does con ..."
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The construction of a virtual backbone for ad hoc networks is modelled by connected dominating set (CDS) in unitdisk graphs. This paper introduces a novel idea to compute CDS effectively our algorithm does not include the members of an existing maximal independent set (MIS) even though it does connect the MIS. Popular approaches in literature count the MIS in the resultant CDS. Therefore it is possible that our new algorithm has better performance ratio. 1
M.R.: An Intelligent Global Flooding Algorithm in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks based on Distributed Learning Automata. Journal of Computer Networks, Vol. 54, Issue 5, 8 April 2010, pp. 826–843. ����received the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in computer engineering
 Computer Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran. Prior
, 1983
"... In wireless ad hoc networks, due to the dynamic topology changes, multi hop communications and strict resource limitations, routing becomes the most challenging issue, and broadcasting is a common approach which is used to alleviate the routing problem. Global flooding is a straightforward broadcast ..."
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In wireless ad hoc networks, due to the dynamic topology changes, multi hop communications and strict resource limitations, routing becomes the most challenging issue, and broadcasting is a common approach which is used to alleviate the routing problem. Global flooding is a straightforward broadcasting method which is used in almost all existing topologybased routing protocols and suffers from the notorious broadcast storm problem. The connected dominating set (CDS) formation is a promising approach for reducing the broadcast routing overhead in which the messages are forwarded along the virtual backbone induced by the CDS. In this paper, we propose an intelligent backbone formation algorithm based on distributed learning automata (DLA) in which a near optimal solution to the minimum CDS problem is found. Sending along this virtual backbone alleviates the broadcast storm problem as the number of hosts responsible for broadcast routing is reduced to the number of hosts in backbone. The proposed algorithm can be also used in multicast routing protocols, where the only multicast group members need to be dominated by the CDS. In this paper, the worst case running time and message complexity of the proposed backbone formation algorithm to find a 1 ( 1 − ε) optimal size backbone are computed. It is shown that by a proper choice of the learning rate of the proposed algorithm, a tradeoff between the running time and message complexity of algorithm with the backbone size can be made. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm significantly outperforms the existing CDSbased backbone formation algorithms in terms of the network backbone size, and its message overhead is only slightly more than the least cost algorithm.
TTS: a twotiered scheduling mechanism for energy conservation in wireless sensor networks
 in Proceedings of the 1st International Conference onWireless Internet (WICON ’05
, 2006
"... Abstract: In this paper, we present a twotiered scheduling approach for effective energy conservation in wireless sensor networks. The effectiveness of this mechanism relies on dynamically updated twotiered scheduling architecture. We aim to prolong network lifetime, while preserving the major req ..."
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Abstract: In this paper, we present a twotiered scheduling approach for effective energy conservation in wireless sensor networks. The effectiveness of this mechanism relies on dynamically updated twotiered scheduling architecture. We aim to prolong network lifetime, while preserving the major requirements of wireless sensor networks: coverage and connectivity. In this approach, sensors are periodically scheduled into sleep in two phases using weighted greedy algorithms that can be deployed either centralised or distributed. First, we establish a coveragetier by selecting a set of sensors that fully covers the sensing field. Thus, sensors that are not selected for the coveragetier, are put into sleep immediately. However, the coveragetier sensors do not necessarily stay active all the time when events are not reported. Therefore, a second tier, called connectivitytier, is formed to deliver data traffic to a sink node. Thus sensors, essential to coveragetier but not in connectivitytier may periodically sleep and become active only for sending new sensing measurement and receiving queries from the sink to preserve coverage for energy savings. In addition, periodically rotating the coverage and connectivity tiers is performed in order to maximise network lifetime and achieve fairness of energy consumption. Through extensive simulations in ns2, we demonstrate that the twotier scheduling can reduce average
Butenko S: Network Clustering
 In Analysis of Biological Networks, Wiley Series on Bioinformatics, Computational Techniques and Engineering Edited by: Junker BH, Schreiber F. Hoboken (New
"... Clustering can be loosely defined as the process of grouping objects into sets called clusters, so that each cluster consists of elements that are similar in some way. The similarity criterion can be defined in several different ways, depending on applications of interest and the objectives that the ..."
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Clustering can be loosely defined as the process of grouping objects into sets called clusters, so that each cluster consists of elements that are similar in some way. The similarity criterion can be defined in several different ways, depending on applications of interest and the objectives that the clustering
Effective Coverage and Connectivity Preserving in Wireless Sensor Networks
 In Proceeding of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC
, 2007
"... Abstract — In this paper, we address the problem of finding an optimal coverage set by effectively eliminating redundant nodes with guaranteed connectivity without using centralized control and accurate location information. Using a fully distributed approach, we propose an effective redundant node ..."
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Abstract — In this paper, we address the problem of finding an optimal coverage set by effectively eliminating redundant nodes with guaranteed connectivity without using centralized control and accurate location information. Using a fully distributed approach, we propose an effective redundant node elimination method that considers even the smallest overlapping regions to establish a coverage set. Further, an extension scheme is presented that finds the minimum number of sensors among the coverage set, where the network connectivity is guaranteed. We present the simulation results to illustrate achievable coverage set while preserving connectivity, and energy saving to verify our approaches. I.
Use of Minimum Node Velocity Based Stable Connected Dominating Sets for Mobile Ad hoc Networks
"... We propose an algorithm to determine stable connected dominating sets (CDS), based on node velocities, for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The proposed minimum velocitybased CDS (MinVCDS) algorithm prefers slowmoving nodes with lower velocity, rather than the usual approach of preferring nodes w ..."
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We propose an algorithm to determine stable connected dominating sets (CDS), based on node velocities, for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The proposed minimum velocitybased CDS (MinVCDS) algorithm prefers slowmoving nodes with lower velocity, rather than the usual approach of preferring nodes with a larger number of uncovered neighbors, i.e., larger density (referred to as MaxDCDS). The construction of the MinVCDS starts with the inclusion of the node having the lowest velocity, into the CDS. Once a node is added to the CDS, all its neighbors are said to be covered. The covered nodes are considered in the increasing order of their velocity, for inclusion in the CDS. If a node has lower velocity and is the next candidate node to be considered for inclusion in the CDS, it is added to the CDS if it has at least one neighbor that is yet to be covered. This procedure is repeated until all the nodes in the network are covered. Simulation results illustrate that the MinVCDS has a significantly longer lifetime compared to MaxDCDS. MinVCDS also has a larger number of nodes and edges compared to MaxDCDS and this helps to reduce the hop count as well as the endtoend delay and improves the fairness of node usage.
A Genetic Algorithm for Solving Connected Dominating Set Problem in Wireless ADHOC Network
, 2013
"... Abstract−In this paper we propose Genetic Algorithm for reducing connected dominating set in Wireless Adhoc networks. Virtual backbone will be formed to count connected dominating set. It shows that the connected dominating size is reduced in our virtual backbone. It solves the problem of flooding. ..."
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Abstract−In this paper we propose Genetic Algorithm for reducing connected dominating set in Wireless Adhoc networks. Virtual backbone will be formed to count connected dominating set. It shows that the connected dominating size is reduced in our virtual backbone. It solves the problem of flooding. We use concept of Unit Disk Graph from graph theory to solve our example. We finally prove that the Minimum Connected Dominating Set (MCDS) is NPComplete. Our approach for solving this problem by considering weight for the vertices.