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15
Observational logic
 IN ALGEBRAIC METHODOLOGY AND SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY (AMAST'98
, 1999
"... We present an institution of observational logic suited for statebased systems specifications. The institution is based on the notion of an observational signature (which incorporates the declaration of a distinguished set of observers) and on observational algebras whose operations are required ..."
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Cited by 57 (10 self)
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We present an institution of observational logic suited for statebased systems specifications. The institution is based on the notion of an observational signature (which incorporates the declaration of a distinguished set of observers) and on observational algebras whose operations are required to be compatible with the indistinguishability relation determined by the given observers. In particular, we introduce a homomorphism concept for observational algebras which adequately expresses observational relationships between algebras. Then we consider a flexible notion of observational signature morphism which guarantees the satisfaction condition of institutions w.r.t. observational satisfaction of arbitrary firstorder sentences. From the proof theoretical point of view we construct a sound and complete proof system for the observational consequence relation. Then we consider structured observational specifications and we provide a sound and complete proof system for such specifications by using a general, institutionindependent result of [6].
Algebraiccoalgebraic specification in CoCasl
 J. LOGIC ALGEBRAIC PROGRAMMING
, 2006
"... We introduce CoCasl as a simple coalgebraic extension of the algebraic specification language Casl. CoCasl allows the nested combination of algebraic datatypes and coalgebraic process types. We show that the wellknown coalgebraic modal logic can be expressed in CoCasl. We present sufficient criter ..."
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Cited by 26 (9 self)
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We introduce CoCasl as a simple coalgebraic extension of the algebraic specification language Casl. CoCasl allows the nested combination of algebraic datatypes and coalgebraic process types. We show that the wellknown coalgebraic modal logic can be expressed in CoCasl. We present sufficient criteria for the existence of cofree models, also for several variants of nested cofree and free specifications. Moreover, we describe an extension of the existing proof support for Casl (in the shape of an encoding into higherorder logic) to CoCasl.
Behavioral institutions and refinements in generalized hidden logics
 J. Univers. Comput. Sci
, 2006
"... Abstract: We investigate behavioral institutions and refinements in the context of the object oriented paradigm. The novelty of our approach is the application of generalized abstract algebraic logic theory of hidden heterogeneous deductive systems (called hidden klogics) to the algebraic specifica ..."
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Cited by 8 (6 self)
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Abstract: We investigate behavioral institutions and refinements in the context of the object oriented paradigm. The novelty of our approach is the application of generalized abstract algebraic logic theory of hidden heterogeneous deductive systems (called hidden klogics) to the algebraic specification of object oriented programs. This is achieved through the Leibniz congruence relation and its combinatorial properties. We reformulate the notion of hidden klogic as well as the behavioral logic of a hidden klogic as institutions. We define refinements as hidden signature morphisms having the extra property of preserving logical consequence. A stricter class of refinements, the ones that preserve behavioral consequence, is studied. We establish sufficient conditions for an ordinary signature morphism to be a behavioral refinement.
Behavioral extensions of institutions
, 2005
"... Abstract. We show that any institution I satisfying some reasonable conditions can be transformed into another institution, Ibeh, which captures formally and abstractly the intuitions of adding support for behavioral equivalence and reasoning to an existing, particular algebraic framework. We call ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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Abstract. We show that any institution I satisfying some reasonable conditions can be transformed into another institution, Ibeh, which captures formally and abstractly the intuitions of adding support for behavioral equivalence and reasoning to an existing, particular algebraic framework. We call our transformation an “extension ” because Ibeh has the same sentences as I and because its entailment relation includes that of I. Many properties of behavioral equivalence in concrete hidden logics follow as special cases of corresponding institutional results. As expected, the presented constructions and results can be instantiated to other logics satisfying our requirements as well, thus leading to novel behavioral logics, such as partial or infinitary ones, that have the desired properties. 1
Constructorbased logics
 Journal of Universal Computer Science
"... Abstract: Many computer science applications concern properties that are true for a restricted class of models. In this paper, a couple of constructorbased institutions are presented. These institutions are defined on top of some base institutions, roughly speaking, by enhancing the syntax with co ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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Abstract: Many computer science applications concern properties that are true for a restricted class of models. In this paper, a couple of constructorbased institutions are presented. These institutions are defined on top of some base institutions, roughly speaking, by enhancing the syntax with constructor symbols and restricting the semantics to models with elements that are reachable by constructors. The proof rules for the constructorbased Horn logics, formalized as institutions, are defined in this paper, and a proof of completeness is provided in the abstract framework of institutions.
Models as arrows: the role of dialgebras?
"... Abstract. A large number of computational processes can suitably be described as a combination of construction, i.e. algebraic, and observation, i.e. coalgebraic, structures. This paper suggests dialgebras as a generic model in which such structures can be combined and proposes a small calculus of ..."
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Abstract. A large number of computational processes can suitably be described as a combination of construction, i.e. algebraic, and observation, i.e. coalgebraic, structures. This paper suggests dialgebras as a generic model in which such structures can be combined and proposes a small calculus of dialgebras including a wrapping combinator and sequential composition. To take good care of invariants in software design, the paper also discusses how dialgebras can be typed by predicates and proves that invariants are preserved through composition. This lays the foundations for a full calculus of invariant proofobligation discharge for dialgebraic models. 1
Equality of Streams is a Π02Complete Problem
"... This paper gives a precise characterization for the complexity of the problem of proving equal two streams defined with a finite number of equations: Π02. Since the Π02 class includes properly both the recursively enumerable and the corecursively enumerable classes, this result implies that one can ..."
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This paper gives a precise characterization for the complexity of the problem of proving equal two streams defined with a finite number of equations: Π02. Since the Π02 class includes properly both the recursively enumerable and the corecursively enumerable classes, this result implies that one can find no mechanical procedure to say when two streams are equal, as well as no procedure to say when two streams are not equal. In particular, there is no complete proof system for equality of streams and no complete system for disequality of streams. 1.
Behavioral Rewrite Systems and Behavioral Productivity
"... Abstract. This paper introduces behavioral rewrite systems, where rewriting is used to evaluate experiments, and behavioral productivity, which says that each experiment can be fully evaluated, and investigates some of their properties. First, it is shown that, in the case of (infinite) streams, be ..."
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Abstract. This paper introduces behavioral rewrite systems, where rewriting is used to evaluate experiments, and behavioral productivity, which says that each experiment can be fully evaluated, and investigates some of their properties. First, it is shown that, in the case of (infinite) streams, behavioral productivity generalizes and may bring to a more basic rewriting setting the existing notion of stream productivity defined in the context of infinite rewriting and lazy strategies; some arguments are given that in some cases one may prefer the behavioral approach. Second, a behavioral productivity criterion is given, which reduces the problem to conventional term rewrite system termination, so that one can use offtheshelf termination tools and techniques for checking behavioral productivity in general, not only for streams. Finally, behavioral productivity is shown to be equivalent to a prooftheoretic (rather than modeltheoretic) notion of behavioral wellspecifiedness, and its difficulty in the arithmetic hierarchy is shown to be Π 0 2 complete. All new concepts are exemplified over streams, infinite binary trees, and processes.
The Duality of State and Observation in Probabilistic Transition Systems
"... Abstract. In this paper we consider the problem of representing and reasoning about systems, especially probabilistic systems, with hidden state. We consider transition systems where the state is not completely visible to an outside observer. Instead, there are observables that partly identify the s ..."
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Abstract. In this paper we consider the problem of representing and reasoning about systems, especially probabilistic systems, with hidden state. We consider transition systems where the state is not completely visible to an outside observer. Instead, there are observables that partly identify the state. We show that one can interchange the notions of state and observation and obtain what we call a dual system. In the case of deterministic systems, the double dual gives a minimal representation of the behaviour of the original system. We extend these ideas to probabilistic transition systems and to partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs). 1
The Duality of State and Observations
, 2007
"... In this paper we consider the problem of representing and reasoning about systems, especially probabilistic systems, with hidden state. We consider transition systems where the state is not completely visible to an outside observer. Instead, there are observables that partly identify the state. We s ..."
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In this paper we consider the problem of representing and reasoning about systems, especially probabilistic systems, with hidden state. We consider transition systems where the state is not completely visible to an outside observer. Instead, there are observables that partly identify the state. We show that one can interchange the notions of state and observation and obtain what we cann a dual system. The double dual gives a minimal representation of the behaviour of the original system. We extend this to nondeterministic systems and to probabilistic transition systems and finally to partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs). In the case of finite automata restricted to one observable, we obtain Brzozowski’s algorithm for minimizing finitestate language acceptors. 1