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24
Efficient collision detection using bounding volume hierarchies of kdops
 IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
, 1998
"... Abstract—Collision detection is of paramount importance for many applications in computer graphics and visualization. Typically, the input to a collision detection algorithm is a large number of geometric objects comprising an environment, together with a set of objects moving within the environment ..."
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Cited by 290 (4 self)
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Abstract—Collision detection is of paramount importance for many applications in computer graphics and visualization. Typically, the input to a collision detection algorithm is a large number of geometric objects comprising an environment, together with a set of objects moving within the environment. In addition to determining accurately the contacts that occur between pairs of objects, one needs also to do so at realtime rates. Applications such as haptic forcefeedback can require over 1,000 collision queries per second. In this paper, we develop and analyze a method, based on boundingvolume hierarchies, for efficient collision detection for objects moving within highly complex environments. Our choice of bounding volume is to use a “discrete orientation polytope” (“kdop”), a convex polytope whose facets are determined by halfspaces whose outward normals come from a small fixed set of k orientations. We compare a variety of methods for constructing hierarchies (“BVtrees”) of bounding kdops. Further, we propose algorithms for maintaining an effective BVtree of kdops for moving objects, as they rotate, and for performing fast collision detection using BVtrees of the moving objects and of the environment. Our algorithms have been implemented and tested. We provide experimental evidence showing that our approach yields substantially faster collision detection than previous methods. Index Terms—Collision detection, intersection searching, bounding volume hierarchies, discrete orientation polytopes, bounding boxes, virtual reality, virtual environments. 1
Collision detection for interactive graphics applications
 IEEE Trans. on Visualization and Computer Graphics
, 1995
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Efficient Collision Detection for Animation and Robotics
, 1993
"... We present efficient algorithms for collision detection and contact determination between geometric models, described by linear or curved boundaries, undergoing rigid motion. The heart of our collision detection algorithm is a simple and fast incremental method to compute the distance between two ..."
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Cited by 125 (17 self)
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We present efficient algorithms for collision detection and contact determination between geometric models, described by linear or curved boundaries, undergoing rigid motion. The heart of our collision detection algorithm is a simple and fast incremental method to compute the distance between two convex polyhedra. It utilizes convexity to establish some local applicability criteria for verifying the closest features. A preprocessing procedure is used to subdivide each feature's neighboring features to a constant size and thus guarantee expected constant running time for each test. The expected constant time performance is an attribute from exploiting the geometric coherence and locality. Let n be the total number of features, the expected run time is between O( p n) and O(n) ...
Efficient event routing in contentbased publish/subscribe service network
 in Proc. of the 23 rd INFOCOM
, 2004
"... Abstract—Efficient event delivery in a contentbased publish/subscribe system has been a challenging problem. Existing group communication solutions, such as IP multicast or applicationlevel multicast techniques, are not readily applicable due to the highly heterogeneous communication pattern in su ..."
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Cited by 47 (1 self)
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Abstract—Efficient event delivery in a contentbased publish/subscribe system has been a challenging problem. Existing group communication solutions, such as IP multicast or applicationlevel multicast techniques, are not readily applicable due to the highly heterogeneous communication pattern in such systems. We first explore the design space of event routing strategies for contentbased publish/subscribe systems. Two major existing approaches are studied: filterbased approach, which performs contentbased filtering on intermediate routing servers to dynamically guide routing decisions, and multicastbased approach, which delivers events through a few highquality multicast groups that are preconstructed to approximately match user interests. These approaches have different tradeoffs in the routing quality achieved and the implementation cost and system load generated. We then present a new routing scheme called Kyra that carefully balance these tradeoffs. Kyra combines the advantages of contentbased filtering and eventspace partitioning in the existing approaches to achieve better overall routing efficiency. We use detailed simulations to evaluate Kyra and compare it with existing approaches. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of Kyra in achieving high network efficiency, reducing implementation cost and balancing system load across the publishsubscribe service network. Keywords—System design, simulations, publishsubscribe, event notification I.
Collision Detection and Analysis in a Physically Based Simulation
 In Eurographics Workshop on Animation and Simulation
, 1991
"... We consider the geometric support in detecting and analyzing collisions and contact between arbitrarily shaped polyhedral objects for a physically based simulation. The contact detection is formulated as a static collisiondetection problem in threedimensional space. We address both robustness and ..."
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Cited by 30 (2 self)
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We consider the geometric support in detecting and analyzing collisions and contact between arbitrarily shaped polyhedral objects for a physically based simulation. The contact detection is formulated as a static collisiondetection problem in threedimensional space. We address both robustness and efficiency of the problem, and show how both can be achieved by using the brepindex data structure. 1 Introduction A computer simulation of physical systems that is based on rigidbody dynamics and that involves objects with arbitrary shapes requires the services of a geometric modeling system. The geometric modeling system is used initially to establish mass properties and to formulate constraints for the system's dynamics. When simulating the motion of objects in the presence of obstacles with possible collisions and prolonged contact, the geometric modeling system is used throughout the simulation. The dynamics modeler must inquire at each time step whether two bodies are about to colli...
Binary Space Partitions for AxisParallel Segments, Rectangles, and Hyperrectangles
 IN PROC. 17TH ANNU. ACM SYMPOS. COMPUT. GEOM
, 2001
"... We provide a variety of new results, including upper and lower bounds, as well as simpler proof techniques for the ecient construction of binary space partitions (BSP's) of axisparallel segments, rectangles, and hyperrectangles. (a) A consequence of the analysis in [1] is that any set of n axi ..."
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Cited by 20 (1 self)
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We provide a variety of new results, including upper and lower bounds, as well as simpler proof techniques for the ecient construction of binary space partitions (BSP's) of axisparallel segments, rectangles, and hyperrectangles. (a) A consequence of the analysis in [1] is that any set of n axisparallel and pairwisedisjoint line segments in the plane admits a binary space partition of size at most 2n 1. We establish a worstcase lower bound of 2n o(n) for the size of such a BSP, thus showing that this bound is almost tight in the worst case. (b) We give an improved worstcase lower bound of 9 4 n o(n) on the size of a BSP for isothetic pairwise disjoint rectangles. (c) We present simple methods, with equally simple analysis, for constructing BSP's for axisparallel segments in higher dimensions, simplifying the technique of [9] and improving the constants. (d) We obtain an alternative construction (to that in [9]) of BSP's for collections of axisparallel rectangles in 3space. (e) We present a construction of BSP's of size O(n 5=3 ) for n axisparallel pairwise disjoint 2rectangles in R 4 , and give a matching worstcase lower bound of n 5=3 ) for the size of such a BSP. (f) We extend the results of [9] to axisparallel kdimensional rectangles in R d , for k < d=2, and obtain a worstcase tight bound of (n d=(d k) ) for the size of a BSP of n rectangles. Both upper and lower bounds also hold for d=2 k d 1 if we allow the rectangles to intersect.
Splitting a Complex of Convex Polytopes In Any Dimension
, 1996
"... Introduction We present a localitybased algorithm to solve the problem of splitting a complex of convex polytopes with a hyperplane or a convex subset of it. The solution to this problem has several applications. One goal is to perform boolean set operations. The solution can also be used to decom ..."
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Cited by 15 (2 self)
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Introduction We present a localitybased algorithm to solve the problem of splitting a complex of convex polytopes with a hyperplane or a convex subset of it. The solution to this problem has several applications. One goal is to perform boolean set operations. The solution can also be used to decompose a polyhedron into convex polytopes [3] and to generate good meshes [4]. In higher dimensional spaces it can be used to efficiently compute isocontours of linear approximations of scalar fields (a basic technique of Scientific Visualization) [17, 19]. The approach taken here can also be included in a set of robust algorithms [11, 13, 15, 20, 27, 28] based on finite precision arithmetic. It is also defined in a dimension independent framework [5, 16, 24, 25]. The main contributions of this approach are: (i) it can be applied to polyhedral complexes of any dimension d; (ii) the algorithm is robust (it always produces valid output) and consistent (the topological structure of the resu
Backface Culling applied to Collision Detection of Polyhedra
 Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation
, 1994
"... this paper we show how this technique can be modified to reduce unnecessary checking of boundary elements in collision detection for a physicalbased simulation and animation systems. At each time step, we determine a priori which faces cannot be part of the contact between two polyhedra and thus can ..."
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Cited by 10 (1 self)
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this paper we show how this technique can be modified to reduce unnecessary checking of boundary elements in collision detection for a physicalbased simulation and animation systems. At each time step, we determine a priori which faces cannot be part of the contact between two polyhedra and thus can be culled. In the computer graphics technique, the normal vector of a polygon is compared with the view direction. Here, the normal is compared to one or possibly several relative velocity vectors, and the face is culled when its motion is in the opposite direction of the normal vector. We also give an algorithm that takes linear time in terms of the number of faces, and on the average eliminates half of the polygons. Due to its low computational overhead, when it is used as a front end to a collision detection system, a noticeable improvement in performance can be achieved. Keywords: culling, collision detection, animation, simulation. 1 Introduction
Isaac: Building Simulations for Virtual Environments
 In Proceedings of the IFIP TC 5 WG 5.10 International Workshop on Virtual Environments
, 1994
"... This paper describes the architecture and initial implementation of the Isaac system. Our general research goal is to develop simulation support for virtual environments. Existing virtual environments are often graphically rich, but behaviorally impoverished. On the other hand, existing physical sys ..."
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Cited by 3 (1 self)
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This paper describes the architecture and initial implementation of the Isaac system. Our general research goal is to develop simulation support for virtual environments. Existing virtual environments are often graphically rich, but behaviorally impoverished. On the other hand, existing physical system simulation software is not wellsuited for use within virtual environments. The Isaac system is a distributed simulation server that integrates multibody dynamics, geometry, and control and is designed to support the needs of virtual environments. Keywords rigidbody dynamics, simulation, virtual environments, geometric modeling, contact, collisions, control. 1 INTRODUCTION Existing virtual environments are often visually rich but behaviorally impoverished; users may be able to walk through geometrically complex worlds rendered using highperformance graphics hardware and software, but the worlds are typically populated with objects that do not behave as humans expect them to. Either u...
Robustness In Solid Modeling  A Tolerance Based Intuitionistic Approach
, 1993
"... This paper presents a new robustness method for geometric modeling operations. Geometric relations are computed from the tolerances defined for geometric objects and the tolerances are dynamically updated to preserve the theoretical properties of the relations. The method is based on an intuitionist ..."
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Cited by 2 (1 self)
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This paper presents a new robustness method for geometric modeling operations. Geometric relations are computed from the tolerances defined for geometric objects and the tolerances are dynamically updated to preserve the theoretical properties of the relations. The method is based on an intuitionistic selfvalidation approach. Geometric algorithms using this method are proved to be robust. We demonstrate the application of the approach for an algorithm computing Boolean set operations on objects bound by planar and natural quadric surfaces. A major advantage of the approach is that it can be applied very generally to obtain a consistent interpretation of geometric data in CAD/CAM systems.