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StraightLine Drawings on Restricted Integer Grids in Two and Three Dimensions (Extended Abstract)
, 2002
"... This paper investigates the following question: Given an integer grid phi, where phi is a proper subset of the integer plane or a proper subset of the integer 3d space, which graphs admit straightline crossingfree drawings with vertices located at the grid points of phi? We characterize the trees ..."
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Cited by 49 (6 self)
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This paper investigates the following question: Given an integer grid phi, where phi is a proper subset of the integer plane or a proper subset of the integer 3d space, which graphs admit straightline crossingfree drawings with vertices located at the grid points of phi? We characterize the trees that can be drawn on a two dimensional c * n &times; k grid, where k and c are given integer constants, and on a two dimensional grid consisting of k parallel horizontal lines of infinite length. Motivated by the results on the plane we investigate restrictions of the integer grid in 3 dimensions and show that every outerplanar graph with n vertices can be drawn crossingfree with straight lines in linear volume on a grid called a prism. This prism consists of 3n integer grid points and is universal  it supports all outerplanar graphs of n vertices. This is the first algorithm that computes crossingfree straight line 3d drawings in linear volume for a nontrivial family of planar graphs. We also show that there exist planar graphs that cannot be drawn on the prism and that extension to a n &times; 2 &times; 2 integer grid, called a box, does not admit the entire class of planar graphs.
ThreeDimensional Grid Drawings with SubQuadratic Volume
, 1999
"... A threedimensional grid drawing of a graph is a placement of the vertices at distinct points with integer coordinates, such that the straight linesegments representing the edges are pairwise noncrossing. A O(n volume bound is proved for threedimensional grid drawings of graphs with bounded ..."
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Cited by 21 (15 self)
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A threedimensional grid drawing of a graph is a placement of the vertices at distinct points with integer coordinates, such that the straight linesegments representing the edges are pairwise noncrossing. A O(n volume bound is proved for threedimensional grid drawings of graphs with bounded degree, graphs with bounded genus, and graphs with no bounded complete graph as a minor. The previous best bound for these graph families was O(n ). These results (partially) solve open problems due to Pach, Thiele, and Toth (1997) and Felsner, Liotta, and Wismath (2001).
The maximum number of edges in a threedimensional griddrawing
 J. Graph Algorithms Appl
, 2003
"... An exact formula is given for the maximum number of edges in a graph that admits a threedimensional griddrawing contained in a given bounding box. A threedimensional (straightline) griddrawing of a graph represents the vertices by distinct points in Z 3, and represents each edge by a linesegme ..."
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Cited by 19 (11 self)
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An exact formula is given for the maximum number of edges in a graph that admits a threedimensional griddrawing contained in a given bounding box. A threedimensional (straightline) griddrawing of a graph represents the vertices by distinct points in Z 3, and represents each edge by a linesegment between its endpoints that does not intersect any other vertex, and does not intersect any other edge except at the endpoints. A folklore result states that every (simple) graph has a threedimensional griddrawing (see [2]). We therefore are interested in griddrawings with small ‘volume’. The bounding box of a threedimensional griddrawing is the axisaligned box of minimum size that contains the drawing. By an X × Y × Z griddrawing we mean a threedimensional griddrawing, such that the edges of the bounding box contain X, Y, and Z gridpoints, respectively. The volume of a threedimensional griddrawing is the number of gridpoints in the bounding box; that is, the volume of an X ×Y ×Z griddrawing is XY Z. (This definition is formulated to ensure that a twodimensional griddrawing has positive volume.) Our main contribution is the following extremal result. Theorem 1. The maximum number of edges in an X × Y × Z griddrawing is exactly (2X − 1)(2Y − 1)(2Z − 1) − XY Z. Proof. Consider an X × Y × Z griddrawing of a graph G with n vertices and m edges. Let P be the set of points (x, y, z) contained in the bounding box such that 2x, 2y, and 2z are all integers. Observe that P  = (2X − 1)(2Y − 1)(2Z − 1). The midpoint of every edge of G is in P, and no two edges share a common midpoint. Hence m ≤ P . In addition, the midpoint of an edge does not intersect a vertex. Thus m ≤ P  − n. (1) A drawing with the maximum number of edges has no edge that passes through a gridpoint. Otherwise, subdivide the edge, and place the new vertex at that gridpoint. Thus n = XY Z, and m ≤ P  − XY Z, as claimed. This bound is attained by the following construction. Associate a vertex with each gridpoint in an X × Y × Z gridbox B. As illustrated in Figure 1, every vertex (x, y, z) is adjacent to each
Drawing SeriesParallel Graphs on a Box
 The University of Lethbridge
, 1997
"... A box is a restricted portion of the threedimensional integer grid consisting of four parallel lines of in nite length placed one grid unit apart. A boxdrawing of a graph is a straightline crossingfree drawing where vertices are located at integer grid points along the four lines. It is known t ..."
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Cited by 13 (0 self)
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A box is a restricted portion of the threedimensional integer grid consisting of four parallel lines of in nite length placed one grid unit apart. A boxdrawing of a graph is a straightline crossingfree drawing where vertices are located at integer grid points along the four lines. It is known that some planar graphs with triconnected components do not admit a boxdrawing. This paper shows that even structurally simpler planar graphs, namely seriesparallel graphs, are not boxdrawable in general. On the positive side, it is proved that every seriesparallel graph whose vertices have maximum degree at most three is boxdrawable. A drawing algorithm is presented that computes a box drawing of a 3planar seriesparallel graph in optimal time and with optimal volume.
Treepartitions of ktrees with applications in graph layout
 Proc. 29th Workshop on Graph Theoretic Concepts in Computer Science (WG’03
, 2002
"... Abstract. A treepartition of a graph is a partition of its vertices into ‘bags ’ such that contracting each bag into a single vertex gives a forest. It is proved that every ktree has a treepartition such that each bag induces a (k − 1)tree, amongst other properties. Applications of this result t ..."
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Cited by 13 (11 self)
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Abstract. A treepartition of a graph is a partition of its vertices into ‘bags ’ such that contracting each bag into a single vertex gives a forest. It is proved that every ktree has a treepartition such that each bag induces a (k − 1)tree, amongst other properties. Applications of this result to two wellstudied models of graph layout are presented. First it is proved that graphs of bounded treewidth have bounded queuenumber, thus resolving an open problem due to Ganley and Heath [2001] and disproving a conjecture of Pemmaraju [1992]. This result provides renewed hope for the positive resolution of a number of open problems regarding queue layouts. In a related result, it is proved that graphs of bounded treewidth have threedimensional straightline grid drawings with linear volume, which represents the largest known class of graphs with such drawings. 1
Queue layouts, treewidth, and threedimensional graph drawing
 PROC. 22ND FOUNDATIONS OF SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY AND THEORETICAL COMPUTER SCIENCE (FST TCS '02
, 2002
"... A threedimensional (straightline grid) drawing of a graph represents the vertices by points in Z 3 and the edges by noncrossing line segments. This research is motivated by the following open problem due to Felsner, Liotta, and Wismath [Graph Drawing ’01, Lecture Notes in Comput. Sci., 2002]: do ..."
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Cited by 10 (7 self)
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A threedimensional (straightline grid) drawing of a graph represents the vertices by points in Z 3 and the edges by noncrossing line segments. This research is motivated by the following open problem due to Felsner, Liotta, and Wismath [Graph Drawing ’01, Lecture Notes in Comput. Sci., 2002]: does every nvertex planar graph have a threedimensional drawing with O(n) volume? We prove that this question is almost equivalent to an existing onedimensional graph layout problem. A queue layout consists of a linear order σ of the vertices of a graph, and a partition of the edges into queues, such that no two edges in the same queue are nested with respect to σ. The minimum number of queues in a queue layout of a graph is its queuenumber. Let G be an nvertex member of a proper minorclosed family of graphs (such as a planar graph). We prove that G has a O(1) × O(1) × O(n) drawing if and only if G has O(1) queuenumber. Thus the above question is almost equivalent to an open problem of Heath, Leighton, and Rosenberg [SIAM J. Discrete Math., 1992], who ask whether every planar graph has O(1) queuenumber? We also present partial solutions to an open problem of Ganley and Heath [Discrete Appl. Math., 2001], who ask whether graphs of bounded treewidth have bounded queuenumber? We prove that graphs with bounded pathwidth, or both bounded treewidth and bounded maximum degree, have bounded queuenumber. As a corollary we obtain threedimensional drawings with optimal O(n) volume, for seriesparallel graphs, and graphs with both bounded treewidth and bounded maximum degree.
ThreeDimensional 1Bend Graph Drawings
 Concordia University
, 2004
"... We consider threedimensional griddrawings of graphs with at most one bend per edge. Under the additional requirement that the vertices be collinear, we prove that the minimum volume of such a drawing is Θ(cn), where n is the number of vertices and c is the cutwidth of the graph. We then prove that ..."
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Cited by 5 (1 self)
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We consider threedimensional griddrawings of graphs with at most one bend per edge. Under the additional requirement that the vertices be collinear, we prove that the minimum volume of such a drawing is Θ(cn), where n is the number of vertices and c is the cutwidth of the graph. We then prove that every graph has a threedimensional griddrawing with O(n 3 / log 2 n) volume and one bend per edge. The best previous bound was O(n 3).
Grid drawings of kcolourable graphs
"... It is proved that every kcolourable graph on n vertices has a grid drawing with O(kn) area, and that this bound is best possible. This result can be viewed as a generalisation of the nothreeinline problem. A further area bound is established that includes the aspect ratio as a parameter. ..."
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Cited by 3 (1 self)
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It is proved that every kcolourable graph on n vertices has a grid drawing with O(kn) area, and that this bound is best possible. This result can be viewed as a generalisation of the nothreeinline problem. A further area bound is established that includes the aspect ratio as a parameter.
Stacks, Queues and Tracks: Layouts of Graph Subdivisions
, 2005
"... A kstack layout (respectively, kqueue layout) of a graph consists of a total order of the vertices, and a partition of the edges into k sets of noncrossing (nonnested) edges with respect to the vertex ordering. A ktrack layout of a graph consists of a vertex kcolouring, and a total order of ea ..."
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Cited by 2 (1 self)
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A kstack layout (respectively, kqueue layout) of a graph consists of a total order of the vertices, and a partition of the edges into k sets of noncrossing (nonnested) edges with respect to the vertex ordering. A ktrack layout of a graph consists of a vertex kcolouring, and a total order of each vertex colour class, such that between each pair of colour classes no two edges cross. The stacknumber (respectively, queuenumber, tracknumber) of a graph G, denoted by sn(G) (qn(G), tn(G)), is the minimum k such that G has a kstack (kqueue, ktrack) layout. This paper studies stack, queue, and track layouts of graph subdivisions. It is known that every graph has a 3stack subdivision. The best known upper bound on the number of division vertices per edge in a 3stack subdivision of an nvertex graph G is improved from O(log n) to O(log min{sn(G), qn(G)}). This result reduces the question of whether queuenumber is bounded by stacknumber to whether 3stack graphs have bounded queue number. It is proved that every graph has a 2queue subdivision, a 4track subdivision, and a mixed 1stack 1queue subdivision. All these values are optimal for every nonplanar graph. In addition, we characterise those graphs with kstack, kqueue, and ktrack subdivisions, for all values of k. The number of division vertices per edge in the case of 2queue and 4track subdivisions, namely O(log qn(G)), is optimal to within a constant factor, for every graph G. Applications to 3D polyline grid drawings are presented. For example, it is proved that every graph G has a 3D polyline grid drawing with the vertices on a rectangular prism, and with O(log qn(G)) bends per edge. Finally, we