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152
Vivaldi: A Decentralized Network Coordinate System
 In SIGCOMM
, 2004
"... Largescale Internet applications can benefit from an ability to predict roundtrip times to other hosts without having to contact them first. Explicit measurements are often unattractive because the cost of measurement can outweigh the benefits of exploiting proximity information. Vivaldi is a simp ..."
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Cited by 602 (4 self)
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Largescale Internet applications can benefit from an ability to predict roundtrip times to other hosts without having to contact them first. Explicit measurements are often unattractive because the cost of measurement can outweigh the benefits of exploiting proximity information. Vivaldi is a simple, lightweight algorithm that assigns synthetic coordinates to hosts such that the distance between the coordinates of two hosts accurately predicts the communication latency between the hosts.
A Survey and Comparison of PeertoPeer Overlay Network Schemes
 IEEE COMMUNICATIONS SURVEYS AND TUTORIALS
, 2005
"... Over the Internet today, computing and communications environments are significantly more complex and chaotic than classical distributed systems, lacking any centralized organization or hierarchical control. There has been much interest in emerging PeertoPeer (P2P) network overlays because they ..."
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Cited by 302 (1 self)
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Over the Internet today, computing and communications environments are significantly more complex and chaotic than classical distributed systems, lacking any centralized organization or hierarchical control. There has been much interest in emerging PeertoPeer (P2P) network overlays because they provide a good substrate for creating largescale data sharing, content distribution and applicationlevel multicast applications. These P2P networks try to provide a long list of features such as: selection of nearby peers, redundant storage, efficient search/location of data items, data permanence or guarantees, hierarchical naming, trust and authentication, and, anonymity. P2P networks potentially offer an efficient routing architecture that is selforganizing, massively scalable, and robust in the widearea, combining fault tolerance, load balancing and explicit notion of locality. In this paper, we present a survey and comparison of various Structured and Unstructured P2P networks. We categorize the various schemes into these two groups in the design spectrum and discuss the applicationlevel network performance of each group.
Designing a DHT for low latency and high throughput
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1ST NSDI
, 2004
"... Designing a widearea distributed hash table (DHT) that provides highthroughput and lowlatency network storage is a challenge. Existing systems have explored a range of solutions, including iterative routing, recursive routing, proximity routing and neighbor selection, erasure coding, replication, ..."
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Cited by 191 (15 self)
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Designing a widearea distributed hash table (DHT) that provides highthroughput and lowlatency network storage is a challenge. Existing systems have explored a range of solutions, including iterative routing, recursive routing, proximity routing and neighbor selection, erasure coding, replication, and server selection. This
Meridian: A Lightweight Network Location Service without Virtual Coordinates
 In SIGCOMM
, 2005
"... This paper introduces a lightweight, scalable and accurate framework, called Meridian, for performing node selection based on network location. The framework consists of an overlay network structured around multiresolution rings, query routing with direct measurements, and gossip protocols for diss ..."
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Cited by 190 (8 self)
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This paper introduces a lightweight, scalable and accurate framework, called Meridian, for performing node selection based on network location. The framework consists of an overlay network structured around multiresolution rings, query routing with direct measurements, and gossip protocols for dissemination. We show how this framework can be used to address three commonly encountered problems, namely, closest node discovery, central leader election, and locating nodes that satisfy target latency constraints in largescale distributed systems without having to compute absolute coordinates. We show analytically that the framework is scalable with logarithmic convergence when Internet latencies are modeled as a growthconstrained metric, a lowdimensional Euclidean metric, or a metric of low doubling dimension. Large scale simulations, based on latency measurements from 6.25 million nodepairs as well as an implementation deployed on PlanetLab show that the framework is accurate and effective.
Virtual Landmarks for the Internet
, 2003
"... Internet coordinate schemes have been proposed as a method for estimating minimum round trip time between hosts without direct measurement. In such a scheme, each host is assigned a set of coordinates, and Euclidean distance is used to form the desired estimate. Two key questions are: How accurate a ..."
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Cited by 187 (3 self)
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Internet coordinate schemes have been proposed as a method for estimating minimum round trip time between hosts without direct measurement. In such a scheme, each host is assigned a set of coordinates, and Euclidean distance is used to form the desired estimate. Two key questions are: How accurate are coordinate schemes across the Internet as a whole? And: are coordinate assignment schemes fast enough, and scalable enough, for large scale use? In this paper we make contributions toward answering both those questions. Whereas the coordinate assignment problem has in the past been approached by nonlinear optimization, we develop a faster method based on dimensionality reduction of the Lipschitz embedding. We show that this method is reasonably accurate, even when applied to measurements spanning the Internet, and that it naturally leads to a scalable measurement strategy based on the notion of virtual landmarks.
A Network Positioning System for the Internet
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 4TH SYMPOSIUM ON INTERNET TECHNOLOGIES AND SYSTEMS; USENIX
, 2004
"... Network positioning has recently been demonstrated to be a viable concept to represent the network distance relationships among Internet end hosts. Several subsequent studies have examined the potential benefits of using network position in applications, and proposed alternative network positioning ..."
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Cited by 123 (1 self)
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Network positioning has recently been demonstrated to be a viable concept to represent the network distance relationships among Internet end hosts. Several subsequent studies have examined the potential benefits of using network position in applications, and proposed alternative network positioning algorithms. In this paper, we study the problem of designing and building a network positioning system (NPS). We identify several key system building issues such as the consistency, adaptivity and stability of host network positions over time. We propose a hierarchical network positioning architecture that maintains consistency while enabling decentralization, a set of adaptive decentralized algorithms to compute and maintain accurate, stable network positions, and finally present a prototype system deployed on PlanetLab nodes that can be used by a variety of applications. We believe our system is a viable first step to provide a network positioning capability in the Internet.
Triangulation and Embedding using Small Sets of Beacons
, 2008
"... Concurrent with recent theoretical interest in the problem of metric embedding, a growing body of research in the networking community has studied the distance matrix defined by nodetonode latencies in the Internet, resulting in a number of recent approaches that approximately embed this distance ..."
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Cited by 96 (11 self)
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Concurrent with recent theoretical interest in the problem of metric embedding, a growing body of research in the networking community has studied the distance matrix defined by nodetonode latencies in the Internet, resulting in a number of recent approaches that approximately embed this distance matrix into lowdimensional Euclidean space. There is a fundamental distinction, however, between the theoretical approaches to the embedding problem and this recent Internetrelated work: in addition to computational limitations, Internet measurement algorithms operate under the constraint that it is only feasible to measure distances for a linear (or nearlinear) number of node pairs, and typically in a highly structured way. Indeed, the most common framework for Internet measurements of this type is a beaconbased approach: one chooses uniformly at random a constant number of nodes (‘beacons’) in the network, each node measures its distance to all beacons, and one then has access to only these measurements for the remainder of the algorithm. Moreover, beaconbased algorithms are often designed not for embedding but for the more basic problem of triangulation, in which one uses the triangle inequality to infer the distances that have not been measured. Here we give algorithms with provable performance guarantees for beaconbased triangulation and
On the accuracy of embeddings for Internet coordinate systems
 in: Proceedings of the Internet Measurement Conference, ACM
, 2005
"... Internet coordinate systems embed RoundTripTimes (RTTs) between Internet nodes into some geometric space so that unmeasured RTTs can be estimated using distance computation in that space. If accurate, such techniques would allow us to predict Internet RTTs without extensive measurements. The publi ..."
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Cited by 91 (6 self)
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Internet coordinate systems embed RoundTripTimes (RTTs) between Internet nodes into some geometric space so that unmeasured RTTs can be estimated using distance computation in that space. If accurate, such techniques would allow us to predict Internet RTTs without extensive measurements. The published techniques appear to work very well when accuracy is measured using metrics such as absolute relative error. Our main observation is that absolute relative error tells us very little about the quality of an embedding as experienced by a user. We define several new accuracy metrics that attempt to quantify various aspects of useroriented quality. Evaluation of current Internet coordinate systems using our new metrics indicates that their quality is not as high as that suggested by the use of absolute relative error. 1
Network coordinates in the wild
 In Proceeding of USENIX NSDI’07
, 2007
"... Network coordinates provide a mechanism for selecting and placing servers efficiently in a large distributed system. This approach works well as long as the coordinates continue to accurately reflect network topology. We conducted a longterm study of a subset of a millionplus node coordinate syste ..."
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Cited by 81 (2 self)
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Network coordinates provide a mechanism for selecting and placing servers efficiently in a large distributed system. This approach works well as long as the coordinates continue to accurately reflect network topology. We conducted a longterm study of a subset of a millionplus node coordinate system and found that it exhibited some of the problems for which network coordinates are frequently criticized, for example, inaccuracy and fragility in the presence of violations of the triangle inequality. Fortunately, we show that several simple techniques remedy many of these problems. Using the Azureus BitTorrent network as our testbed, we show that live, largescale network coordinate systems behave differently than their tame PlanetLab and simulationbased counterparts. We find higher relative errors, more triangle inequality violations, and higher churn. We present and evaluate a number of techniques that, when applied to Azureus, efficiently produce accurate and stable network coordinates. 1
Internet routing policies and roundtriptimes
 In PAM
, 2005
"... Abstract. Round trip times (RTTs) play an important role in Internet measurements. In this paper, we explore some of the ways in which routing policies impact RTTs. In particular, we investigate how routing policies for both intra and interdomain routing can naturally give rise to violations of th ..."
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Cited by 76 (4 self)
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Abstract. Round trip times (RTTs) play an important role in Internet measurements. In this paper, we explore some of the ways in which routing policies impact RTTs. In particular, we investigate how routing policies for both intra and interdomain routing can naturally give rise to violations of the triangle inequality with respect to RTTs. Triangle Inequality Violations (TIVs) might be exploited by overlay routing if an endtoend forwarding path can be stitched together with paths routed at layer 3. However, TIVs pose a problem for Internet Coordinate Systems that attempt to associate Internet hosts with points in Euclidean space so that RTTs between hosts are accurately captured by distances between their associated points. Three points having RTTs that violate the triangle inequality cannot be embedded into Euclidean space without some level of inaccuracy. We argue that TIVs should not be treated as measurement artifacts, but rather as natural features of the Internet’s structure. In addition to explaining routing policies that give rise to TIVs, we present illustrating examples from the current Internet. 1