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Compositional Model Checking
, 1999
"... We describe a method for reducing the complexity of temporal logic model checking in systems composed of many parallel processes. The goal is to check properties of the components of a system and then deduce global properties from these local properties. The main difficulty with this type of approac ..."
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Cited by 3252 (70 self)
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We describe a method for reducing the complexity of temporal logic model checking in systems composed of many parallel processes. The goal is to check properties of the components of a system and then deduce global properties from these local properties. The main difficulty with this type of approach is that local properties are often not preserved at the global level. We present a general framework for using additional interface processes to model the environment for a component. These interface processes are typically much simpler than the full environment of the component. By composing a component with its interface processes and then checking properties of this composition, we can guarantee that these properties will be preserved at the global level. We give two example compositional systems based on the logic CTL*.
Symbolic Boolean manipulation with ordered binarydecision diagrams
 ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 1992
"... Ordered BinaryDecision Diagrams (OBDDS) represent Boolean functions as directed acyclic graphs. They form a canonical representation, making testing of functional properties such as satmfiability and equivalence straightforward. A number of operations on Boolean functions can be implemented as grap ..."
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Cited by 1036 (13 self)
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Ordered BinaryDecision Diagrams (OBDDS) represent Boolean functions as directed acyclic graphs. They form a canonical representation, making testing of functional properties such as satmfiability and equivalence straightforward. A number of operations on Boolean functions can be implemented as graph algorithms on OBDD
Symbolic Model Checking without BDDs
, 1999
"... Symbolic Model Checking [3, 14] has proven to be a powerful technique for the verification of reactive systems. BDDs [2] have traditionally been used as a symbolic representation of the system. In this paper we show how boolean decision procedures, like Stalmarck's Method [16] or the Davis ..."
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Cited by 917 (75 self)
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Symbolic Model Checking [3, 14] has proven to be a powerful technique for the verification of reactive systems. BDDs [2] have traditionally been used as a symbolic representation of the system. In this paper we show how boolean decision procedures, like Stalmarck's Method [16] or the Davis & Putnam Procedure [7], can replace BDDs. This new technique avoids the space blow up of BDDs, generates counterexamples much faster, and sometimes speeds up the verification. In addition, it produces counterexamples of minimal length. We introduce a bounded model checking procedure for LTL which reduces model checking to propositional satisfiability. We show that bounded LTL model checking can be done without a tableau construction. We have implemented a model checker BMC, based on bounded model checking, and preliminary results are presented.
Counterexampleguided Abstraction Refinement
, 2000
"... We present an automatic iterative abstractionrefinement methodology in which the initial abstract model is generated by an automatic analysis of the control structures in the program to be verified. Abstract models may admit erroneous (or "spurious") counterexamples. We devise new symb ..."
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Cited by 843 (71 self)
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We present an automatic iterative abstractionrefinement methodology in which the initial abstract model is generated by an automatic analysis of the control structures in the program to be verified. Abstract models may admit erroneous (or "spurious") counterexamples. We devise new symbolic techniques which analyze such counterexamples and refine the abstract model correspondingly.
A formal basis for architectural connection
 ACM TRANSACTIONS ON SOJIWARE ENGINEERING AND METHODOLOGY
, 1997
"... ..."
HyTech: A Model Checker for Hybrid Systems
 Software Tools for Technology Transfer
, 1997
"... A hybrid system is a dynamical system whose behavior exhibits both discrete and continuous change. A hybrid automaton is a mathematical model for hybrid systems, which combines, in a single formalism, automaton transitions for capturing discrete change with differential equations for capturing conti ..."
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Cited by 473 (6 self)
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A hybrid system is a dynamical system whose behavior exhibits both discrete and continuous change. A hybrid automaton is a mathematical model for hybrid systems, which combines, in a single formalism, automaton transitions for capturing discrete change with differential equations for capturing continuous change. HyTech is a symbolic model checker for linear hybrid automata, a subclass of hybrid automata that can be analyzed automatically by computing with polyhedral state sets. A key feature of HyTech is its ability to perform parametric analysis, i.e. to determine the values of design parameters for which a linear hybrid automaton satisfies a temporallogic requirement. 1 Introduction A hybrid system typically consists of a collection of digital programs that interact with each other and with an analog environment. Examples of hybrid systems include manufacturing controllers, automotive and flight controllers, medical equipment, microelectromechanical systems, and robots. When thes...
LSCs: Breathing Life into Message Sequence Charts
, 2001
"... While message sequence charts (MSCs) are widely used in industry to document the interworking of processes or objects, they are expressively weak, being based on the modest semantic notion of a partial ordering of events as defined, e.g., in the ITU standard. A highly expressive and rigorously defin ..."
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Cited by 444 (71 self)
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While message sequence charts (MSCs) are widely used in industry to document the interworking of processes or objects, they are expressively weak, being based on the modest semantic notion of a partial ordering of events as defined, e.g., in the ITU standard. A highly expressive and rigorously defined MSC language is a must for serious, semantically meaningful tool support for usecases and scenarios. It is also a prerequisite to addressing what we regard as one of the central problems in behavioral specification of systems: relating scenariobased interobject specification to statemachine intraobject specification. This paper proposes an extension of MSCs, which we call live sequence charts (or LSCs), since our main extension deals with specifying "liveness", i.e., things that must occur. In fact, LSCs allow the distinction between possible and necessary behavior both globally, on the level of an entire chart and locally, when specifying events, conditions and progress over time within a chart. This makes it possible to specify forbidden scenarios, for example, and enables naturally specified structuring constructs such as subcharts, branching and iteration.
Symbolic Model Checking Using SAT Procedures instead of BDDs
 DAC 99
, 1999
"... In this paper, we study the application of propositional decision procedures in hardware verification. In particular, we apply bounded model checking, as introduced in [1], to equivalence and invariant checking. We present several optimizations that reduce the size of generated propositional formula ..."
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Cited by 329 (28 self)
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In this paper, we study the application of propositional decision procedures in hardware verification. In particular, we apply bounded model checking, as introduced in [1], to equivalence and invariant checking. We present several optimizations that reduce the size of generated propositional formulas. In many instances, our SATbased approach can significantly outperform BDDbased approaches. We observe that SATbased techniques are particularly efficient in detecting errors in both combinational and sequential designs.
Simple Onthefly Automatic Verification of Linear Temporal Logic
, 1995
"... We present a tableaubased algorithm for obtaining an automaton from a temporal logic formula. The algorithm is geared towards being used in model checking in an "onthefly" fashion, that is the automaton can be constructed simultaneously with, and guided by, the generation of the model. ..."
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Cited by 327 (29 self)
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We present a tableaubased algorithm for obtaining an automaton from a temporal logic formula. The algorithm is geared towards being used in model checking in an "onthefly" fashion, that is the automaton can be constructed simultaneously with, and guided by, the generation of the model. In particular, it is possible to detect that a propertydoes not hold by only constructing part of the model and of the automaton. The algorithm can also be used to checkthevalidity of a temporal logic assertion. Although the general problem is PSPACEcomplete, experiments show that our algorithm performs quite well on the temporal formulas typically encountered in verification. While basing lineartime temporal logic modelchecking upon a transformation to automata is not new, the details of how to do this efficiently, and in "onthefly" fashion havenever been given.