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On limits of wireless communications in a fading environment when using multiple antennas
 Wireless Personal Communications
, 1998
"... Abstract. This paper is motivated by the need for fundamental understanding of ultimate limits of bandwidth efficient delivery of higher bitrates in digital wireless communications and to also begin to look into how these limits might be approached. We examine exploitation of multielement array (M ..."
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Cited by 2426 (14 self)
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Abstract. This paper is motivated by the need for fundamental understanding of ultimate limits of bandwidth efficient delivery of higher bitrates in digital wireless communications and to also begin to look into how these limits might be approached. We examine exploitation of multielement array (MEA) technology, that is processing the spatial dimension (not just the time dimension) to improve wireless capacities in certain applications. Specifically, we present some basic information theory results that promise great advantages of using MEAs in wireless LANs and building to building wireless communication links. We explore the important case when the channel characteristic is not available at the transmitter but the receiver knows (tracks) the characteristic which is subject to Rayleigh fading. Fixing the overall transmitted power, we express the capacity offered by MEA technology and we see how the capacity scales with increasing SNR for a large but practical number, n, of antenna elements at both transmitter and receiver. We investigate the case of independent Rayleigh faded paths between antenna elements and find that with high probability extraordinary capacity is available. Compared to the baseline n = 1 case, which by Shannon’s classical formula scales as one more bit/cycle for every 3 dB of signaltonoise ratio (SNR) increase, remarkably with MEAs, the scaling is almost like n more bits/cycle for each 3 dB increase in SNR. To illustrate how great this capacity is, even for small n, take the cases n = 2, 4 and 16 at an average received SNR of 21 dB. For over 99%
Spacetime codes for high data rate wireless communication: Performance criterion and code construction
 IEEE TRANS. INFORM. THEORY
, 1998
"... We consider the design of channel codes for improving the data rate and/or the reliability of communications over fading channels using multiple transmit antennas. Data is encoded by a channel code and the encoded data is split into n streams that are simultaneously transmitted using n transmit ant ..."
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Cited by 1782 (28 self)
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We consider the design of channel codes for improving the data rate and/or the reliability of communications over fading channels using multiple transmit antennas. Data is encoded by a channel code and the encoded data is split into n streams that are simultaneously transmitted using n transmit antennas. The received signal at each receive antenna is a linear superposition of the n transmitted signals perturbed by noise. We derive performance criteria for designing such codes under the assumption that the fading is slow and frequency nonselective. Performance is shown to be determined by matrices constructed from pairs of distinct code sequences. The minimum rank among these matrices quantifies the diversity gain, while the minimum determinant of these matrices quantifies the coding gain. The results are then extended to fast fading channels. The design criteria are used to design trellis codes for high data rate wireless communication. The encoding/decoding complexity of these codes is comparable to trellis codes employed in practice over Gaussian channels. The codes constructed here provide the best tradeoff between data rate, diversity advantage, and trellis complexity. Simulation results are provided for 4 and 8 PSK signal sets with data rates of 2 and 3 bits/symbol, demonstrating excellent performance that is within 2–3 dB of the outage capacity for these channels using only 64 state encoders.
Spacetime block codes from orthogonal designs
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 1999
"... Abstract — We introduce space–time block coding, a new paradigm for communication over Rayleigh fading channels using multiple transmit antennas. Data is encoded using a space–time block code and the encoded data is split into � streams which are simultaneously transmitted using � transmit antennas. ..."
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Cited by 1524 (42 self)
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Abstract — We introduce space–time block coding, a new paradigm for communication over Rayleigh fading channels using multiple transmit antennas. Data is encoded using a space–time block code and the encoded data is split into � streams which are simultaneously transmitted using � transmit antennas. The received signal at each receive antenna is a linear superposition of the � transmitted signals perturbed by noise. Maximumlikelihood decoding is achieved in a simple way through decoupling of the signals transmitted from different antennas rather than joint detection. This uses the orthogonal structure of the space–time block code and gives a maximumlikelihood decoding algorithm which is based only on linear processing at the receiver. Space–time block codes are designed to achieve the maximum diversity order for a given number of transmit and receive antennas subject to the constraint of having a simple decoding algorithm. The classical mathematical framework of orthogonal designs is applied to construct space–time block codes. It is shown that space–time block codes constructed in this way only exist for few sporadic values of �. Subsequently, a generalization of orthogonal designs is shown to provide space–time block codes for both real and complex constellations for any number of transmit antennas. These codes achieve the maximum possible transmission rate for any number of transmit antennas using any arbitrary real constellation such as PAM. For an arbitrary complex constellation such as PSK and QAM, space–time block codes are designed that achieve IaP of the maximum possible transmission rate for any number of transmit antennas. For the specific cases of two, three, and four transmit antennas, space–time block codes are designed that achieve, respectively, all, QaR, and QaR of maximum possible transmission rate using arbitrary complex constellations. The best tradeoff between the decoding delay and the number of transmit antennas is also computed and it is shown that many of the codes presented here are optimal in this sense as well. Index Terms — Codes, diversity, multipath channels, multiple antennas, wireless communication.
Fading correlation and its effect on the capacity of multielement antenna system”,
 IEEE Trans. Commun.,
, 2000
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Zeroforcing methods for downlink spatial multiplexing in multiuser MIMO channels
 IEEE TRANS. SIGNAL PROCESSING
, 2004
"... The use of spacedivision multiple access (SDMA) in the downlink of a multiuser multipleinput, multipleoutput (MIMO) wireless communications network can provide a substantial gain in system throughput. The challenge in such multiuser systems is designing transmit vectors while considering the coc ..."
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Cited by 371 (29 self)
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The use of spacedivision multiple access (SDMA) in the downlink of a multiuser multipleinput, multipleoutput (MIMO) wireless communications network can provide a substantial gain in system throughput. The challenge in such multiuser systems is designing transmit vectors while considering the cochannel interference of other users. Typical optimization problems of interest include the capacity problem—maximizing the sum information rate subject to a power constraint—or the power control problem—minimizing transmitted power such that a certain qualityofservice metric for each user is met. Neither of these problems possess closedform solutions for the general multiuser MIMO channel, but the imposition of certain constraints can lead to closedform solutions. This paper presents two such constrained solutions. The first, referred to as “blockdiagonalization,” is a generalization of channel inversion when there are multiple antennas at each receiver. It is easily adapted to optimize for either maximum transmission rate or minimum power and approaches the optimal solution at high SNR. The second, known as “successive optimization, ” is an alternative method for solving the power minimization problem one user at a time, and it yields superior results in some (e.g., low SNR) situations. Both of these algorithms are limited to cases where the transmitter has more antennas than all receive antennas combined. In order to accommodate more general scenarios, we also propose a framework for coordinated transmitterreceiver processing that generalizes the two algorithms to cases involving more receive than transmit antennas. While the proposed algorithms are suboptimal, they lead to simpler transmitter and receiver structures and allow for a reasonable tradeoff between performance and complexity.
Spacetime block coding for wireless communications: performance results
 IEEE J. Select. Areas. Commun
, 1999
"... Abstract—We document the performance of space–time block codes [13], [14], which provide a new paradigm for transmission over Rayleigh fading channels using multiple transmit antennas. Data is encoded using a space–time block code, and the encoded data is split into n streams which are simultaneousl ..."
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Cited by 369 (13 self)
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Abstract—We document the performance of space–time block codes [13], [14], which provide a new paradigm for transmission over Rayleigh fading channels using multiple transmit antennas. Data is encoded using a space–time block code, and the encoded data is split into n streams which are simultaneously transmitted using n transmit antennas. The received signal at each receive antenna is a linear superposition of the n transmitted signals perturbed by noise. Maximum likelihood decoding is achieved in a simple way through decoupling of the signals transmitted from different antennas rather than joint detection. This uses the orthogonal structure of the space–time block code and gives a maximum likelihood decoding algorithm which is based only on linear processing at the receiver. We review the encoding and decoding algorithms for various codes and provide simulation results demonstrating their performance. It is shown that using multiple transmit antennas and space–time block coding provides remarkable performance at the expense of almost no extra processing. Index Terms — Diversity, multipath channels, multiple antennas, space–time codes, wireless communication. I.
Linear Multiuser Receivers: Effective Interference, Effective Bandwidth and User Capacity
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 1999
"... Multiuser receivers improve the performance of spreadspectrum and antennaarray systems by exploiting the structure of the multiaccess interference when demodulating the signal of a user. Much of the previous work on the performance analysis of multiuser receivers has focused on their ability to re ..."
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Cited by 361 (13 self)
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Multiuser receivers improve the performance of spreadspectrum and antennaarray systems by exploiting the structure of the multiaccess interference when demodulating the signal of a user. Much of the previous work on the performance analysis of multiuser receivers has focused on their ability to reject worst case interference. Their performance in a powercontrolled network and the resulting user capacity are less wellunderstood. In this paper, we show that in a large system with each user using random spreading sequences, the limiting interference effects under several linear multiuser receivers can be decoupled, such that each interferer can be ascribed a level of effective interference that it provides to the user to be demodulated. Applying these results to the uplink of a single powercontrolled cell, we derive an effective bandwidth characterization of the user capacity: the signaltointerference requirements of all the users can be met if and only if the sum of the effective bandwidths of the users is less than the total number of degrees of freedom in the system. The effective bandwidth of a user depends only on its own SIR requirement, and simple expressions are derived for three linear receivers: the conventional matched filter, the decorrelator, and the MMSE receiver. The effective bandwidths under the three receivers serve as a basis for performance comparison.
Applications of Antenna Arrays to Mobile Communications, Part I: Performance Improvement, Feasibility, and System Considerations
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE
, 1997
"... The demand for wireless mobile... This paper is the first of a twopart study. It provides a comprehensive treatment, at a level appropriate to nonspecialists, of the use of an antenna array to enhance the efficiency of mobile communications systems. It presents an overview of mobile communications ..."
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Cited by 222 (0 self)
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The demand for wireless mobile... This paper is the first of a twopart study. It provides a comprehensive treatment, at a level appropriate to nonspecialists, of the use of an antenna array to enhance the efficiency of mobile communications systems. It presents an overview of mobile communications as well as details of how an array may be used in various mobile communications systems, including landmobile, indoorradio, and satellitebased systems. It discusses advantages of an array of antennas in a mobile communications system, highlights improvements that are possible by using multiple antennas compared to a single antenna in a system, and provides details on the feasibility of antenna arrays for mobile communications applications.
Diversitymultiplexing tradeoff in multipleaccess channels
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 2004
"... In a pointtopoint wireless fading channel, multiple transmit and receive antennas can be used to improve the reliability of reception (diversity gain) or increase the rate of communication for a fixed reliability level (multiplexing gain). In a multiple access situation, multiple receive antennas ..."
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Cited by 187 (4 self)
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In a pointtopoint wireless fading channel, multiple transmit and receive antennas can be used to improve the reliability of reception (diversity gain) or increase the rate of communication for a fixed reliability level (multiplexing gain). In a multiple access situation, multiple receive antennas can also be used to spatially separate signals from different users (multiple access gain). Recent work has characterized the fundamental tradeoff between diversity and multiplexing gains in the pointtopoint scenario. In this paper, we extend the results to a multiple access fading channel. Our results characterize the fundamental tradeoff between the three types of gain and provide insights on the capabilities of multiple antennas in a network context. 1