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327
A fully automated framework for control of linear systems from ltl specifications
 In HSCC, volume 3927 of LNCS
, 2006
"... Abstract. We consider the following problem: given a linear system and an LTL−X formula over a set of linear predicates in its state variables, find a feedback control law with polyhedral bounds and a set of initial states so that all trajectories of the closed loop system satisfy the formula. Our ..."
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Cited by 146 (32 self)
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Abstract. We consider the following problem: given a linear system and an LTL−X formula over a set of linear predicates in its state variables, find a feedback control law with polyhedral bounds and a set of initial states so that all trajectories of the closed loop system satisfy the formula. Our solution to this problem consists of three main steps. First, we partition the state space in accordance with the predicates in the formula and construct a transition system over the partition quotient, which captures our capability of designing controllers. Second, using model checking, we determine runs of the transition system satisfying the formula. Third, we generate the control strategy. Illustrative examples are included. 1
Logics for Hybrid Systems
 Proceedings of the IEEE
, 2000
"... This paper offers a synthetic overview of, and original contributions to, the use of logics and formal methods in the analysis of hybrid systems ..."
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Cited by 137 (12 self)
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This paper offers a synthetic overview of, and original contributions to, the use of logics and formal methods in the analysis of hybrid systems
Effective Synthesis of Switching Controllers for Linear Systems
, 2000
"... In this work we suggest a novel methodology for synthesizing switching controllers for continuous and hybrid systems whose dynamics are defined by linear differential equations. We formulate the synthesis problem as finding the conditions upon which a controller should switch the behavior of the sys ..."
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Cited by 110 (8 self)
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In this work we suggest a novel methodology for synthesizing switching controllers for continuous and hybrid systems whose dynamics are defined by linear differential equations. We formulate the synthesis problem as finding the conditions upon which a controller should switch the behavior of the system from one "mode" to another in order to avoid a set of bad states, and propose an abstract algorithm which solves the problem by an iterative computation of reachable states. We have implemented a concrete version of the algorithm, which uses a new approximation scheme for reachability analysis of linear systems.
Approximation metrics for discrete and continuous systems
 IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
, 2005
"... Established system relationships for discrete systems, such as language inclusion, simulation, and bisimulation, require system observations to be identical. When interacting with the physical world, modeled by continuous or hybrid systems, exact relationships are restrictive and not robust. In thi ..."
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Cited by 105 (16 self)
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Established system relationships for discrete systems, such as language inclusion, simulation, and bisimulation, require system observations to be identical. When interacting with the physical world, modeled by continuous or hybrid systems, exact relationships are restrictive and not robust. In this paper, we develop the first framework of system approximation that applies to both discrete and continuous systems by developing notions of approximate language inclusion, approximate simulation, and approximate bisimulation relations. We define a hierarchy of approximation pseudometrics between two systems that quantify the quality of the approximation, and capture the established exact relationships as zero sections. Our approximation framework is compositional for a synchronous composition operator. Algorithms are developed for computing the proposed pseudometrics, both exactly and approximately. The exact algorithms require the generalization of the fixed point algorithms for computing simulation and bisimulation relations, or dually, the solution of a static game whose cost is the socalled branching distance between the systems. Approximations for the pseudometrics can be obtained by considering Lyapunovlike functions called simulation and bisimulation functions. We illustrate our approximation framework in reducing the complexity of safety verification problems for both deterministic and nondeterministic continuous systems.
Hierarchical Modeling and Analysis of Embedded Systems
, 2003
"... This paper describes the modeling language CHARON for modular design of interacting hybrid systems. The language allows specification of architectural as well as behavioral hierarchy and discrete as well as continuous activities. The modular structure of the language is not merely syntactic, but is ..."
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Cited by 78 (24 self)
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This paper describes the modeling language CHARON for modular design of interacting hybrid systems. The language allows specification of architectural as well as behavioral hierarchy and discrete as well as continuous activities. The modular structure of the language is not merely syntactic, but is exploited by analysis tools and is supported by a formal semantics with an accompanying compositional theory of refinement. We illustrate the benefits of CHARON in the design of embedded control software using examples from automated highways concerning vehicle coordination
Bisimilar Linear Systems
, 2001
"... The notion of bisimulation in theoretical computer science is one of the main complexity reduction methods for the analysis and synthesis of labeled transition systems. Bisimulations are special quotients of the state space that preserve many important properties expressible in temporal logics, and, ..."
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Cited by 68 (14 self)
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The notion of bisimulation in theoretical computer science is one of the main complexity reduction methods for the analysis and synthesis of labeled transition systems. Bisimulations are special quotients of the state space that preserve many important properties expressible in temporal logics, and, in particular, reachability. In this paper, the framework of bisimilar transition systems is applied to various transition systems that are generated by linear control systems. Given a discretetime or continuoustime linear system, and a finite observation map, we characterize linear quotient maps that result in quotient transition systems that are bisimilar to the original system. Interestingly, the characterizations for discretetime systems are more restrictive than for continuoustime systems, due to the existence of an atomic time step. We show that computing the coarsest bisimulation, which results in maximum complexity reduction, corresponds to computing the maximal controlled or reachability invariant subspace inside the kernel of the observations map. These results establish strong connections between complexity reduction concepts in control theory and computer science.
Where’s waldo? sensorbased temporal logic motion planning
 in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2007
, 2007
"... Abstract — Given a robot model and a class of admissible environments, this paper provides a framework for automatically and verifiably composing controllers that satisfy high level task specifications expressed in suitable temporal logics. The desired task specifications can express complex robot b ..."
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Cited by 67 (9 self)
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Abstract — Given a robot model and a class of admissible environments, this paper provides a framework for automatically and verifiably composing controllers that satisfy high level task specifications expressed in suitable temporal logics. The desired task specifications can express complex robot behaviors such as search and rescue, coverage, and collision avoidance. In addition, our framework explicitly captures sensor specifications that depend on the environment with which the robot is interacting, resulting in a novel paradigm for sensorbased temporal logic motion planning. As one robot is part of the environment of another robot, our sensorbased framework very naturally captures multirobot specifications. Our computational approach is based on first creating discrete controllers satisfying socalled General Reactivity(1) formulas. If feasible, the discrete controller is then used in order to guide the sensorbased composition of continuous controllers resulting in a hybrid controller satisfying the high level specification, but only if the environment is admissible. Index Terms — Motion planning, temporal logics, sensorbased planning, controller synthesis, hybrid control.
Reachability Analysis of Hybrid Systems via Predicate Abstraction
 Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control, Fifth International Workshop, LNCS 2289
, 2002
"... Predicate abstraction has emerged to be a powerful technique for extracting finitestate models from infinitestate discrete programs. This paper presents algorithms and tools for reachability analysis of hybrid systems by combining the notion of predicate abstraction with recent techniques for appr ..."
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Cited by 62 (8 self)
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Predicate abstraction has emerged to be a powerful technique for extracting finitestate models from infinitestate discrete programs. This paper presents algorithms and tools for reachability analysis of hybrid systems by combining the notion of predicate abstraction with recent techniques for approximating the set of reachable states of linear systems using polyhedra. Given a hybrid system and a set of userdefined predicates, we consider the finite discrete quotient whose states correspond to all possible truth assignments to the input predicates. The tool performs an onthefly exploration of the abstract system by using weakest preconditions to compute abstract transitions corresponding to the discrete switches and conservative polyhedral approximations to compute abstract transitions corresponding to continuous flows. Compared to tools such as Checkmate and d/dt, this approach requires significantly less computational resources as the emphasis is shifted from computing the reachable set to searching in the abstract quotient. We demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed technique by analyzing a parametric timingbased mutual exclusion protocol and safety of a simple controller for vehicle coordination.
Linear time logic control of discretetime linear systems
 IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
, 2006
"... Abstract. The control of complex systems poses new challenges that fall beyond the traditional methods of control theory. One of these challenges is given by the need to control, coordinate and synchronize the operation of several interacting submodules within a system. The desired objectives are no ..."
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Cited by 61 (4 self)
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Abstract. The control of complex systems poses new challenges that fall beyond the traditional methods of control theory. One of these challenges is given by the need to control, coordinate and synchronize the operation of several interacting submodules within a system. The desired objectives are no longer captured by usual control specifications such as stabilization or output regulation. Instead, we consider specifications given by Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) formulas. We show that existence of controllers for discretetime controllable linear systems and LTL specifications can be decided and that such controllers can be effectively computed. The closedloop system is of hybrid nature, combining the original continuous dynamics with the automatically synthesized switching logic required to enforce the specification. 1.
TemporalLogicBased Reactive Mission and Motion Planning
, 2009
"... This paper provides a framework to automatically generate a hybrid controller that guarantees that the robot can achieve its task when a robot model, a class of admissible environments, and a highlevel task or behavior for the robot are provided. The desired task specifications, which are expresse ..."
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Cited by 58 (11 self)
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This paper provides a framework to automatically generate a hybrid controller that guarantees that the robot can achieve its task when a robot model, a class of admissible environments, and a highlevel task or behavior for the robot are provided. The desired task specifications, which are expressed in a fragment of linear temporal logic (LTL), can capture complex robot behaviors such as search and rescue, coverage, and collision avoidance. In addition, our framework explicitly captures sensor specifications that depend on the environment with which the robot is interacting, which results in a novel paradigm for sensorbased temporallogicmotion planning. As one robot is part of the environment of another robot, our sensorbased framework very naturally captures multirobot specifications in a decentralized manner. Our computational approach is based on first creating discrete controllers satisfying specific LTL formulas. If feasible, the discrete controller is then used to guide the sensorbased composition of continuous controllers, which results in a hybrid controller satisfying the highlevel specification but only if the environment is admissible.