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54
RigidBody Dynamics With Friction and Impact,”
 SIAM Rev.,
, 2000
"... Abstract. Rigidbody dynamics with unilateral contact is a good approximation for a wide range of everyday phenomena, from the operation of car brakes to walking to rock slides. It is also of vital importance for simulating robots, virtual reality, and realistic animation. However, correctly modeli ..."
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Cited by 137 (1 self)
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Abstract. Rigidbody dynamics with unilateral contact is a good approximation for a wide range of everyday phenomena, from the operation of car brakes to walking to rock slides. It is also of vital importance for simulating robots, virtual reality, and realistic animation. However, correctly modeling rigidbody dynamics with friction is difficult due to a number of discontinuities in the behavior of rigid bodies and the discontinuities inherent in the Coulomb friction law. This is particularly crucial for handling situations with large coefficients of friction, which can result in paradoxical results known at least since Painlevé [C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 121 (1895), pp. 112115]. This single example has been a counterexample and cause of controversy ever since, and only recently have there been rigorous mathematical results that show the existence of solutions to his example. The new mathematical developments in rigidbody dynamics have come from several sources: "sweeping processes" and the measure differential inclusions of Moreau in the 1970s and 1980s, the variational inequality approaches of Duvaut and J.L. Lions in the 1970s, and the use of complementarity problems to formulate frictional contact problems by Lötstedt in the early 1980s. However, it wasn't until much more recently that these tools were finally able to produce rigorous results about rigidbody dynamics with Coulomb friction and impulses. Key words. rigidbody dynamics, Coulomb friction, contact mechanics, measuredifferential inclu sions, complementarity problems AMS subject classifications. Primary, 70E55; Secondary, 70F40, 74M PII. S0036144599360110 Rigid Bodies and Friction. Rigid bodies are bodies that cannot deform. They can translate and rotate, but they cannot change their shape. From the outset this must be understood as an approximation to reality, since no bodies are perfectly rigid. However, for a vast number of applications in robotics, manufacturing, biomechanics (such as studying how people walk), and granular materials, this is an excellent approximation. It is also convenient, since it does not require solving large, complex systems of partial differential equations, which is generally difficult to do both analytically and computationally. To see the difference, consider the problem of a bouncing ball. The rigidbody model will assume that the ball does not deform while in flight and that contacts with the ground are instantaneous, at least while the ball is not rolling. On the other hand, a full elastic model will model not only the contacts and the resulting deformation of the entire ball while in contact, but also the elastic oscillations of the ball while it is in flight. Apart from the computational complexity of all this, the analysis of even linearly elastic bodies in contact with a *
Variational Integrators and the Newmark Algorithm for Conservative and Dissipative Mechanical Systems
 Internat. J. Numer. Methods Engrg
, 1999
"... The purpose of this work is twofold. First, we demonstrate analytically that the classical Newmark family as well as related integration algorithms are variational in the sense of the Veselov formulation of discrete mechanics. Such variational algorithms are well known to be symplectic and momentum ..."
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Cited by 97 (35 self)
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The purpose of this work is twofold. First, we demonstrate analytically that the classical Newmark family as well as related integration algorithms are variational in the sense of the Veselov formulation of discrete mechanics. Such variational algorithms are well known to be symplectic and momentum preserving and to often have excellent global energy behavior. This analytical result is verified through numerical examples and is believed to be one of the primary reasons that this class of algorithms performs so well. Second, we develop algorithms for mechanical systems with forcing, and in particular, for dissipative systems. In this case, we develop integrators that are based on a discretization of the Lagrange d’Alembert principle as well as on a variational formulation of dissipation. It is demonstrated that these types of structured integrators have good numerical behavior in terms of obtaining the correct amounts by which
Mechanical Integrators Derived from a Discrete Variational Principle
"... Many numerical integrators for mechanical system simulation are created by using discrete algorithms to approximate the continuous equations of motion. In this paper, we present a procedure to construct timestepping algorithms that approximate the flow of continuous ODE's for mechanical system ..."
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Cited by 85 (13 self)
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Many numerical integrators for mechanical system simulation are created by using discrete algorithms to approximate the continuous equations of motion. In this paper, we present a procedure to construct timestepping algorithms that approximate the flow of continuous ODE's for mechanical systems by discretizing Hamilton's principle rather than the equations of motion. The discrete equations share similarities to the continuous equations by preserving invariants, including the symplectic form and the momentum map. We girst present a formulation of discrete mechanics along with a discrete variational principle. We then show that the resulting equations of motion preserve the symplectic form and that this formulation of mechanics leads to conservation laws from a discrete version of Noether's theorem. We then use the discrete mechanics formulation to develop a procedure for constructing mechanical integrators for continuous Lagrangian systems. We apply the construction procedure to the rigid body and the double spherical pendulum to demonstrate numerical properties of the integrators.
Geometric numerical integration illustrated by the StörmerVerlet method
, 2003
"... The subject of geometric numerical integration deals with numerical integrators that preserve geometric properties of the flow of a differential equation, and it explains how structure preservation leads to improved longtime behaviour. This article illustrates concepts and results of geometric nume ..."
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Cited by 63 (6 self)
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The subject of geometric numerical integration deals with numerical integrators that preserve geometric properties of the flow of a differential equation, and it explains how structure preservation leads to improved longtime behaviour. This article illustrates concepts and results of geometric numerical integration on the important example of the Störmer–Verlet method. It thus presents a crosssection of the recent monograph by the authors, enriched by some additional material. After an introduction to the Newton–Störmer–Verlet–leapfrog method and its various interpretations, there follows a discussion of geometric properties: reversibility, symplecticity, volume preservation, and conservation of first integrals. The extension to Hamiltonian systems on manifolds is also described. The theoretical foundation relies on a backward error analysis, which translates the geometric properties of the method into the structure of a modified differential equation, whose flow is nearly identical to the numerical method. Combined with results from perturbation theory, this explains the excellent longtime behaviour of the method: longtime energy conservation, linear error growth and preservation of invariant tori in nearintegrable systems, a discrete virial theorem, and preservation of adiabatic invariants.
Symplectic Numerical Integrators in Constrained Hamiltonian Systems
, 1994
"... : Recent work reported in the literature suggests that for the longtime integration of Hamiltonian dynamical systems one should use methods that preserve the symplectic (or canonical) structure of the flow. Here we investigate the symplecticness of numerical integrators for constrained dynamics, su ..."
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Cited by 61 (8 self)
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: Recent work reported in the literature suggests that for the longtime integration of Hamiltonian dynamical systems one should use methods that preserve the symplectic (or canonical) structure of the flow. Here we investigate the symplecticness of numerical integrators for constrained dynamics, such as occur in molecular dynamics when bond lengths are made rigid in order to overcome stepsize limitations due to the highest frequencies. This leads to a constrained Hamiltonian system of smaller dimension. Previous work has shown that it is possible to have methods which are symplectic on the constraint manifold in phase space. Here it is shown that the very popular Verlet method with SHAKEtype constraints is equivalent to the same method with RATTLEtype constraints and that the latter is symplectic and time reversible. (This assumes that the iteration is carried to convergence.) We also demonstrate the global convergence of the Verlet scheme in the presence of SHAKEtype and RATTLE...
Biomolecular dynamics at long timesteps: Bridging the timescale gap between simulation and experimentation
 ANNU. REV. BIOPHYS. BIOMOL. STRUCT
, 1997
"... Innovative algorithms have been developed during the past decade for simulating Newtonian physics for macromolecules. A major goal is alleviation of the severe requirement that the integration timestep be small enough to resolve the fastest components of the motion and thus guarantee numerical stab ..."
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Cited by 29 (10 self)
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Innovative algorithms have been developed during the past decade for simulating Newtonian physics for macromolecules. A major goal is alleviation of the severe requirement that the integration timestep be small enough to resolve the fastest components of the motion and thus guarantee numerical stability. This timestep problem is challenging if strictly faster methods with the same allatom resolution at small timesteps are sought. Mathematical techniques that have worked well in other multipletimescale contexts—where the fast motions are rapidly decaying or largely decoupled from others—have not been as successful for biomolecules, where vibrational coupling is strong. This review examines general issues that limit the timestep and describes available methods (constrained, reducedvariable, implicit, symplectic, multipletimestep, and normalmodebased schemes). A section compares results of selected integrators for a model dipeptide, assessing physical and numerical performance. Included is our dual timestep method LN, which relies on an approximate linearization of the equations of motion every �t interval (5 fs or less), the solution of which is obtained by explicit integration at the inner timestep �τ (e.g., 0.5 fs). LN is computationally competitive, providing 4–5 speedup factors, and results are in good agreement, in comparison to 0.5 fs trajectories. These collective algorithmic efforts help fill the gap between the time range that can be simulated and the timespans of major biological interest (milliseconds and longer). Still, only a hierarchy of models and methods, along with
Equivariant constrained symplectic integration
 J. Nonlinear Sci
, 1995
"... We use recent results on symplectic integration of Hamiltonian systems with constraints to construct symplectic integrators on cotangent bundles of manifolds by embedding the manifold in a linear space. We also prove that these methods are equivariant under cotangent lifts of a symmetry group acting ..."
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Cited by 28 (3 self)
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We use recent results on symplectic integration of Hamiltonian systems with constraints to construct symplectic integrators on cotangent bundles of manifolds by embedding the manifold in a linear space. We also prove that these methods are equivariant under cotangent lifts of a symmetry group acting linearly on the ambient space and consequently preserve the corresponding momentum. These results provide an elementary construction of symplectic integrators for LiePoisson systems and other Hamiltonian systems with symmetry. The methods are illustrated on the free rigid body, the heavy top, and the double spherical pendulum. 1.
Nonholonomic integrators
, 2001
"... Abstract. We introduce a discretization of the Lagranged’Alembert principle for Lagrangian systems with nonholonomic constraints, which allows us to construct numerical integrators that approximate the continuous flow. We study the geometric invariance properties of the discrete flow which provide ..."
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Cited by 27 (0 self)
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Abstract. We introduce a discretization of the Lagranged’Alembert principle for Lagrangian systems with nonholonomic constraints, which allows us to construct numerical integrators that approximate the continuous flow. We study the geometric invariance properties of the discrete flow which provide an explanation for the good performance of the proposed method. This is tested on two examples: a nonholonomic particle with a quadratic potential and a mobile robot with fixed orientation.
Structure Preservation For Constrained Dynamics With Super Partitioned Additive RungeKutta Methods
 SIAM J. Sci. Comput
, 1998
"... A broad class of partitioned differential equations with possible algebraic constraints is considered, including Hamiltonian and mechanical systems with holonomic constraints. For mechanical systems a formulation eliminating the Coriolis forces and closely related to the EulerLagrange equations is ..."
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Cited by 22 (9 self)
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A broad class of partitioned differential equations with possible algebraic constraints is considered, including Hamiltonian and mechanical systems with holonomic constraints. For mechanical systems a formulation eliminating the Coriolis forces and closely related to the EulerLagrange equations is presented. A new class of integrators is defined: the super partitioned additive RungeKutta (SPARK) methods. This class is based on the partitioning of the system into different variables and on the splitting of the differential equations into different terms. A linear stability and convergence analysis of these methods is given. SPARK methods allowing the direct preservation of certain properties are characterized. Different structures and invariants are considered: the manifold of constraints, symplecticness, reversibility, contractivity, dilatation, energy, momentum, and quadratic invariants. With respect to linear stability and structurepreservation, the class of sstage Lobatto IIIABCC* SPARK methods is of special interest. Controllable numerical damping can be introduced by the use of additional parameters. Some issues related to the implementation of a reversible variable stepsize strategy are discussed.
Exploiting Invariants In The Numerical Solution Of Multipoint Boundary Value Problems For DAE
 SIAM J. Sci. Comp
, 1998
"... This paper presents a new approach to the numerical solution of boundary value problems for higher index differential algebraic equations. Invariants known for the original DAE as well as invariants of the reduced index 1 formulation are exploited to stabilize initial value problem integration, deri ..."
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Cited by 22 (12 self)
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This paper presents a new approach to the numerical solution of boundary value problems for higher index differential algebraic equations. Invariants known for the original DAE as well as invariants of the reduced index 1 formulation are exploited to stabilize initial value problem integration, derivative generation and nonlinear and linear systems solution of an enhanced multiple shooting method. Extensions to collocation are given. Applications are presented for two important problem classes: parameter estimation in multibody systems given in descriptor form, and singular and state constrained optimal control problems. In particular, generalizations of the "internal numerical differentiation" technique to DAE with invariants and a new multistage least squares decomposition technique for DAE boundary value problems are developed, which are implemented in the multiple shooting code PARFIT and in the collocation code COLFIT. Further, a method is described which minimizes the number of...