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3,362,235
Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM algorithm
 JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY, SERIES B
, 1977
"... A broadly applicable algorithm for computing maximum likelihood estimates from incomplete data is presented at various levels of generality. Theory showing the monotone behaviour of the likelihood and convergence of the algorithm is derived. Many examples are sketched, including missing value situat ..."
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Cited by 11807 (17 self)
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A broadly applicable algorithm for computing maximum likelihood estimates from incomplete data is presented at various levels of generality. Theory showing the monotone behaviour of the likelihood and convergence of the algorithm is derived. Many examples are sketched, including missing value
Environmental Protection Agency
 Environmental Labeling: Issues, Policies, and Practices Worldwide
, 1998
"... Contract No. 68C70051 ..."
Genomic Expression Programs in the Response of Yeast Cells to Environmental Changes
 Mol. Biol. Cell
, 2000
"... this article contains data set material, and is available at www.molbiolcell.org. ..."
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Cited by 743 (21 self)
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this article contains data set material, and is available at www.molbiolcell.org.
Bayes Factors
, 1995
"... In a 1935 paper, and in his book Theory of Probability, Jeffreys developed a methodology for quantifying the evidence in favor of a scientific theory. The centerpiece was a number, now called the Bayes factor, which is the posterior odds of the null hypothesis when the prior probability on the null ..."
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Cited by 1766 (74 self)
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In a 1935 paper, and in his book Theory of Probability, Jeffreys developed a methodology for quantifying the evidence in favor of a scientific theory. The centerpiece was a number, now called the Bayes factor, which is the posterior odds of the null hypothesis when the prior probability on the null
Factor Graphs and the SumProduct Algorithm
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY
, 1998
"... A factor graph is a bipartite graph that expresses how a "global" function of many variables factors into a product of "local" functions. Factor graphs subsume many other graphical models including Bayesian networks, Markov random fields, and Tanner graphs. Following one simple c ..."
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Cited by 1787 (72 self)
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computational rule, the sumproduct algorithm operates in factor graphs to computeeither exactly or approximatelyvarious marginal functions by distributed messagepassing in the graph. A wide variety of algorithms developed in artificial intelligence, signal processing, and digital communications can
Effects of Somatic Cell Count and Various Environmental Factors on Milk Yield and Foremilk Constituents of RedHolstein Cows
"... In this study, the effects of somatic cell count (SCC) and various environmental factors on milk yield and foremilk constituents in RedHolstein (RH) cows raised under Mediterranean climatic conditions in Aydın Province in Turkey were determined. A total of 891 foremilk samples collected from 129 co ..."
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In this study, the effects of somatic cell count (SCC) and various environmental factors on milk yield and foremilk constituents in RedHolstein (RH) cows raised under Mediterranean climatic conditions in Aydın Province in Turkey were determined. A total of 891 foremilk samples collected from 129
Factoring wavelet transforms into lifting steps
 J. Fourier Anal. Appl
, 1998
"... ABSTRACT. This paper is essentially tutorial in nature. We show how any discrete wavelet transform or two band subband filtering with finite filters can be decomposed into a finite sequence of simple filtering steps, which we call lifting steps but that are also known as ladder structures. This dec ..."
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Cited by 573 (8 self)
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. This decomposition corresponds to a factorization of the polyphase matrix of the wavelet or subband filters into elementary matrices. That such a factorization is possible is wellknown to algebraists (and expressed by the formula); it is also used in linear systems theory in the electrical engineering community. We
Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance abuse prevention
 Psychological Bulletin
, 1992
"... The authors suggest that the most promising route to effective strategies for the prevention of adolescent alcohol and other drug problems is through a riskfocused approach. This approach requires the identification of risk factors for drug abuse, identification of methods by which risk factors hav ..."
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Cited by 693 (18 self)
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The authors suggest that the most promising route to effective strategies for the prevention of adolescent alcohol and other drug problems is through a riskfocused approach. This approach requires the identification of risk factors for drug abuse, identification of methods by which risk factors
Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research
 Psychological Methods
, 1999
"... Despite the widespread use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research, researchers often make questionable decisions when conducting these analyses. This article reviews the major design and analytical decisions that must be made when conducting a factor analysis and notes that each of ..."
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Cited by 495 (4 self)
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Despite the widespread use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research, researchers often make questionable decisions when conducting these analyses. This article reviews the major design and analytical decisions that must be made when conducting a factor analysis and notes that each
The unbearable automaticity of being
 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
, 1999
"... What was noted by E. J. hanger (1978) remains true today: that much of contemporary psychological research is based on the assumption that people are consciously and systematically processing incoming information in order to construe and interpret their world and to plan and engage in courses of act ..."
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Cited by 568 (14 self)
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. The authors then describe the different possible mechanisms that produce automatic, environmental control over these various phenomena and review evidence establishing both the existence of these mechanisms as well as their consequences for judgments, emotions, and
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