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The complexity of theoremproving procedures
 IN STOC
, 1971
"... It is shown that any recognition problem solved by a polynomial timebounded nondeterministic Turing machine can be “reduced” to the problem of determining whether a given propositional formula is a tautology. Here “reduced ” means, roughly speaking, that the first problem can be solved deterministi ..."
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Cited by 1050 (5 self)
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It is shown that any recognition problem solved by a polynomial timebounded nondeterministic Turing machine can be “reduced” to the problem of determining whether a given propositional formula is a tautology. Here “reduced ” means, roughly speaking, that the first problem can be solved deterministically in polynomial time provided an oracle is available for solving the second. From this notion of reducible, polynomial degrees of difficulty are defined, and it is shown that the problem of determining tautologyhood has the same polynomial degree as the problem of determining whether the first of two given graphs is isomorphic to a subgraph of the second. Other examples are discussed. A method of measuring the complexity of proof procedures for the predicate calculus is introduced and discussed. Throughout this paper, a set of strings 1 means a set of strings on some fixed, large, finite alphabet Σ. This alphabet is large enough to include symbols for all sets described here. All Turing machines are deterministic recognition devices, unless the contrary is explicitly stated.
Modular elliptic curves and Fermat’s Last Theorem
 ANNALS OF MATH
, 1995
"... When Andrew John Wiles was 10 years old, he read Eric Temple Bell’s The Last Problem and was so impressed by it that he decided that he would be the first person to prove Fermat’s Last Theorem. This theorem states that there are no nonzero integers a, b, c, n with n> 2 such that a n + b n = c n ..."
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Cited by 617 (2 self)
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When Andrew John Wiles was 10 years old, he read Eric Temple Bell’s The Last Problem and was so impressed by it that he decided that he would be the first person to prove Fermat’s Last Theorem. This theorem states that there are no nonzero integers a, b, c, n with n> 2 such that a n + b n = c
StrategyProofness and Arrow’s Conditions: Existence and Correspondence Theorems for Voting Procedures and Social Welfare Functions
 J. Econ. Theory
, 1975
"... Consider a committee which must select one alternative from a set of three or more alternatives. Committee members each cast a ballot which the voting procedure counts. The voting procedure is strategyproof if it always induces every committee member to cast a ballot revealing his preference. I pro ..."
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Cited by 553 (0 self)
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prove three theorems. First, every strategyproof voting procedure is dictatorial. Second, this paper’s strategyproofness condition for voting procedures corresponds to Arrow’s rationality, independence of irrelevant alternatives, nonnegative response, and citizens ’ sovereignty conditions for social
A Separator Theorem for Planar Graphs
, 1977
"... Let G be any nvertex planar graph. We prove that the vertices of G can be partitioned into three sets A, B, C such that no edge joins a vertex in A with a vertex in B, neither A nor B contains more than 2n/3 vertices, and C contains no more than 2& & vertices. We exhibit an algorithm which ..."
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Cited by 461 (1 self)
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Let G be any nvertex planar graph. We prove that the vertices of G can be partitioned into three sets A, B, C such that no edge joins a vertex in A with a vertex in B, neither A nor B contains more than 2n/3 vertices, and C contains no more than 2& & vertices. We exhibit an algorithm which
Properties of subsets
 Journal of Formalized Mathematics
, 1989
"... Summary. The text includes theorems concerning properties of subsets, and some operations on sets. The functions yielding improper subsets of a set, i.e. the empty set and the set itself are introduced. Functions and predicates introduced for sets are redefined. Some theorems about enumerated sets a ..."
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Cited by 1272 (0 self)
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Summary. The text includes theorems concerning properties of subsets, and some operations on sets. The functions yielding improper subsets of a set, i.e. the empty set and the set itself are introduced. Functions and predicates introduced for sets are redefined. Some theorems about enumerated sets
USER’S GUIDE TO VISCOSITY SOLUTIONS OF SECOND ORDER PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
, 1992
"... The notion of viscosity solutions of scalar fully nonlinear partial differential equations of second order provides a framework in which startling comparison and uniqueness theorems, existence theorems, and theorems about continuous dependence may now be proved by very efficient and striking argume ..."
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Cited by 1399 (16 self)
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The notion of viscosity solutions of scalar fully nonlinear partial differential equations of second order provides a framework in which startling comparison and uniqueness theorems, existence theorems, and theorems about continuous dependence may now be proved by very efficient and striking
Functions from a set to a set
 Journal of Formalized Mathematics
, 1989
"... function from a set X into a set Y, denoted by “Function of X,Y ”, the set of all functions from a set X into a set Y, denoted by Funcs(X,Y), and the permutation of a set (mode Permutation of X, where X is a set). Theorems and schemes included in the article are reformulations of the theorems of [1] ..."
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Cited by 1089 (23 self)
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function from a set X into a set Y, denoted by “Function of X,Y ”, the set of all functions from a set X into a set Y, denoted by Funcs(X,Y), and the permutation of a set (mode Permutation of X, where X is a set). Theorems and schemes included in the article are reformulations of the theorems of [1
The knowledge complexity of interactive proof systems

, 1989
"... Usually, a proof of a theorem contains more knowledge than the mere fact that the theorem is true. For instance, to prove that a graph is Hamiltonian it suffices to exhibit a Hamiltonian tour in it; however, this seems to contain more knowledge than the single bit Hamiltonian/nonHamiltonian. In th ..."
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Cited by 1246 (39 self)
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Usually, a proof of a theorem contains more knowledge than the mere fact that the theorem is true. For instance, to prove that a graph is Hamiltonian it suffices to exhibit a Hamiltonian tour in it; however, this seems to contain more knowledge than the single bit Hamiltonian
A Syntactic Approach to Type Soundness
 INFORMATION AND COMPUTATION
, 1992
"... We present a new approach to proving type soundness for Hindley/Milnerstyle polymorphic type systems. The keys to our approach are (1) an adaptation of subject reduction theorems from combinatory logic to programming languages, and (2) the use of rewriting techniques for the specification of the la ..."
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Cited by 629 (22 self)
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We present a new approach to proving type soundness for Hindley/Milnerstyle polymorphic type systems. The keys to our approach are (1) an adaptation of subject reduction theorems from combinatory logic to programming languages, and (2) the use of rewriting techniques for the specification
AgentSpeak(L): BDI Agents speak out in a logical computable language
, 1996
"... BeliefDesireIntention (BDI) agents have been investigated by many researchers from both a theoretical specification perspective and a practical design perspective. However, there still remains a large gap between theory and practice. The main reason for this has been the complexity of theoremprov ..."
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Cited by 514 (2 self)
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BeliefDesireIntention (BDI) agents have been investigated by many researchers from both a theoretical specification perspective and a practical design perspective. However, there still remains a large gap between theory and practice. The main reason for this has been the complexity of theoremproving
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