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Combining labeled and unlabeled data with cotraining
, 1998
"... We consider the problem of using a large unlabeled sample to boost performance of a learning algorithm when only a small set of labeled examples is available. In particular, we consider a setting in which the description of each example can be partitioned into two distinct views, motivated by the ta ..."
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Cited by 1614 (34 self)
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by the task of learning to classify web pages. For example, the description of a web page can be partitioned into the words occurring on that page, and the words occurring in hyperlinks that point to that page. We assume that either view of the example would be su cient for learning if we had enough labeled
Constrained model predictive control: Stability and optimality
 AUTOMATICA
, 2000
"... Model predictive control is a form of control in which the current control action is obtained by solving, at each sampling instant, a finite horizon openloop optimal control problem, using the current state of the plant as the initial state; the optimization yields an optimal control sequence and t ..."
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Cited by 696 (15 self)
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and/or timevarying systems. We concentrate our attention on research dealing with stability and optimality; in these areas the subject has developed, in our opinion, to a stage where it has achieved sufficient maturity to warrant the active interest of researchers in nonlinear control. We distill
Efficient similarity search in sequence databases
, 1994
"... We propose an indexing method for time sequences for processing similarity queries. We use the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) to map time sequences to the frequency domain, the crucial observation being that, for most sequences of practical interest, only the first few frequencies are strong. Anot ..."
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Cited by 505 (21 self)
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. Another important observation is Parseval's theorem, which specifies that the Fourier transform preserves the Euclidean distance in the time or frequency domain. Having thus mapped sequences to a lowerdimensionality space by using only the first few Fourier coe cients, we use Rtrees to index
Reflectance and texture of realworld surfaces
 ACM TRANS. GRAPHICS
, 1999
"... In this work, we investigate the visual appearance of realworld surfaces and the dependence of appearance on scale, viewing direction and illumination direction. At ne scale, surface variations cause local intensity variation or image texture. The appearance of this texture depends on both illumina ..."
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Cited by 586 (23 self)
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illumination and viewing direction and can be characterized by the BTF (bidirectional texture function). At su ciently coarse scale, local image texture is not resolvable and local image intensity is uniform. The dependence of this image intensity on illumination and viewing direction is described by the BRDF
Financial Dependence and Growth
 American Economic Review
, 1998
"... This paper examines whether nancial development facilitates economic growth by scrutinizing one rationale for such a relationship; that nancial development reduces the costs of external nance to rms. Speci cally, we ask whether industrial sectors that are relatively more in need of external nance de ..."
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Cited by 1043 (29 self)
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This paper examines whether nancial development facilitates economic growth by scrutinizing one rationale for such a relationship; that nancial development reduces the costs of external nance to rms. Speci cally, we ask whether industrial sectors that are relatively more in need of external nance develop disproportionately faster in countries with more developed nancial markets. We nd this to be true in a large sample of countries over the 1980s. We show this result is unlikely to be driven by omitted variables, outliers, or reverse causality. (JEL O4, F3, G1) A large literature, dating at least as far back as Joseph A. Schumpeter (1911), emphasizes the positive in uence of the development of a country's nancial sector on the level and the rate of growth of its per capita income. The argument essentially is that the services the nancial sector provides { of reallocating capital to the highest value use without substantial risk of loss through moral hazard, adverse selection, or transactions costs { are an essential catalyst of economic growth. Empirical work seems consistent with this argument. For example, on the
Fast Effective Rule Induction
, 1995
"... Many existing rule learning systems are computationally expensive on large noisy datasets. In this paper we evaluate the recentlyproposed rule learning algorithm IREP on a large and diverse collection of benchmark problems. We show that while IREP is extremely efficient, it frequently gives error r ..."
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Cited by 1257 (21 self)
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Many existing rule learning systems are computationally expensive on large noisy datasets. In this paper we evaluate the recentlyproposed rule learning algorithm IREP on a large and diverse collection of benchmark problems. We show that while IREP is extremely efficient, it frequently gives error rates higher than those of C4.5 and C4.5rules. We then propose a number of modifications resulting in an algorithm RIPPERk that is very competitive with C4.5rules with respect to error rates, but much more efficient on large samples. RIPPERk obtains error rates lower than or equivalent to C4.5rules on 22 of 37 benchmark problems, scales nearly linearly with the number of training examples, and can efficiently process noisy datasets containing hundreds of thousands of examples.
The Design and Use of Steerable Filters
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 1991
"... Oriented filters are useful in many early vision and image processing tasks. One often needs to apply the same filter, rotated to different angles under adaptive control, or wishes to calculate the filter response at various orientations. We present an efficient architecture to synthesize filters of ..."
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Cited by 1079 (11 self)
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Oriented filters are useful in many early vision and image processing tasks. One often needs to apply the same filter, rotated to different angles under adaptive control, or wishes to calculate the filter response at various orientations. We present an efficient architecture to synthesize filters of arbitrary orientations from linear combinations of basis filters, allowing one to adaptively "steer" a filter to any orientation, and to determine analytically the filter output as a function of orientation.
Coherent Measures of Risk
, 1998
"... In this paper we study both market risks and nonmarket risks, without complete markets assumption, and discuss methods of measurement of these risks. We present and justify a set of four desirable properties for measures of risk, and call the measures satisfying these properties "coherent" ..."
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Cited by 882 (4 self)
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In this paper we study both market risks and nonmarket risks, without complete markets assumption, and discuss methods of measurement of these risks. We present and justify a set of four desirable properties for measures of risk, and call the measures satisfying these properties "coherent". We examine the measures of risk provided and the related actions required by SPAN, by the SEC/NASD rules and by quantile based methods. We demonstrate the universality of scenariobased methods for providing coherent measures. We offer suggestions concerning the SEC method. We also suggest a method to repair the failure of subadditivity of quantilebased methods.
Locally weighted learning
 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE REVIEW
, 1997
"... This paper surveys locally weighted learning, a form of lazy learning and memorybased learning, and focuses on locally weighted linear regression. The survey discusses distance functions, smoothing parameters, weighting functions, local model structures, regularization of the estimates and bias, ass ..."
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Cited by 594 (53 self)
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This paper surveys locally weighted learning, a form of lazy learning and memorybased learning, and focuses on locally weighted linear regression. The survey discusses distance functions, smoothing parameters, weighting functions, local model structures, regularization of the estimates and bias, assessing predictions, handling noisy data and outliers, improving the quality of predictions by tuning t parameters, interference between old and new data, implementing locally weighted learning e ciently, and applications of locally weighted learning. A companion paper surveys how locally weighted learning can be used in robot learning and control.
The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Analysis
 AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW
, 2002
"... We exploit differences in early colonial experience to estimate the effect of institutions on economic performance. Our argument is that Europeans adopted very different colonization policies in different colonies, with different associated institutions. The choice of colonization strategy was, at l ..."
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Cited by 1585 (38 self)
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We exploit differences in early colonial experience to estimate the effect of institutions on economic performance. Our argument is that Europeans adopted very different colonization policies in different colonies, with different associated institutions. The choice of colonization strategy was, at least in part, determined by the feasibility of whether Europeans could settle in the colony. In places where Europeans faced high mortality rates, they could not settle and they were more likely to set up worse (extractive) institutions. These early institutions persisted to the present. We document these hypotheses in the data. Exploiting differences in mortality rates faced by soldiers, bishops and sailors in the colonies during the 18th and 19th centuries as an instrument for current institutions, we estimate large effects of institutions on income per capita. Our estimates imply that a change from the worst (Zaire) to the best (US or New Zealand) institutions in our sample would be associated with a five fold increase in income per capita.
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