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Convex Analysis
, 1970
"... In this book we aim to present, in a unified framework, a broad spectrum of mathematical theory that has grown in connection with the study of problems of optimization, equilibrium, control, and stability of linear and nonlinear systems. The title Variational Analysis reflects this breadth. For a lo ..."
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Cited by 5248 (67 self)
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progressed also to the study of socalled stationary points, critical points, and other indications of singularity that a point might have relative to its neighbors, especially in association with existence theorems for differential equations.
Clustering by passing messages between data points
 Science
, 2007
"... Clustering data by identifying a subset of representative examples is important for processing sensory signals and detecting patterns in data. Such “exemplars ” can be found by randomly choosing an initial subset of data points and then iteratively refining it, but this works well only if that initi ..."
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Cited by 689 (8 self)
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if that initial choice is close to a good solution. We devised a method called “affinity propagation,” which takes as input measures of similarity between pairs of data points. Realvalued messages are exchanged between data points until a highquality set of exemplars and corresponding clusters gradually emerges
Learning the Kernel Matrix with SemiDefinite Programming
, 2002
"... Kernelbased learning algorithms work by embedding the data into a Euclidean space, and then searching for linear relations among the embedded data points. The embedding is performed implicitly, by specifying the inner products between each pair of points in the embedding space. This information ..."
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Cited by 767 (21 self)
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is contained in the socalled kernel matrix, a symmetric and positive definite matrix that encodes the relative positions of all points. Specifying this matrix amounts to specifying the geometry of the embedding space and inducing a notion of similarity in the input spaceclassical model selection
The English Noun Phrase in its Sentential Aspect
 PH.D. DISSERTATION MIT
, 1987
"... This dissertation is a defense of the hypothesis that the noun phrase is headed by a functional element (i.e., "nonlexical" category) D, identified with the determiner. In this way, the structure of the noun phrase parallels that of the sentence, which is headed by Infl(ection), under ass ..."
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Cited by 509 (4 self)
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assumptions now standard within the GovernmentBinding (GB) framework. The central empirical problem addressed is the question of the proper analysis of the socalled "Possing" gerund in English. This construction possesses simultaneously many properties of sentences, and many properties of noun
Mean shift: A robust approach toward feature space analysis
 In PAMI
, 2002
"... A general nonparametric technique is proposed for the analysis of a complex multimodal feature space and to delineate arbitrarily shaped clusters in it. The basic computational module of the technique is an old pattern recognition procedure, the mean shift. We prove for discrete data the convergence ..."
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Cited by 2357 (37 self)
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the convergence of a recursive mean shift procedure to the nearest stationary point of the underlying density function and thus its utility in detecting the modes of the density. The equivalence of the mean shift procedure to the Nadaraya–Watson estimator from kernel regression and the robust M
Exact Sampling with Coupled Markov Chains and Applications to Statistical Mechanics
, 1996
"... For many applications it is useful to sample from a finite set of objects in accordance with some particular distribution. One approach is to run an ergodic (i.e., irreducible aperiodic) Markov chain whose stationary distribution is the desired distribution on this set; after the Markov chain has ..."
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Cited by 536 (13 self)
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For many applications it is useful to sample from a finite set of objects in accordance with some particular distribution. One approach is to run an ergodic (i.e., irreducible aperiodic) Markov chain whose stationary distribution is the desired distribution on this set; after the Markov chain
Constructing Free Energy Approximations and Generalized Belief Propagation Algorithms
 IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
, 2005
"... Important inference problems in statistical physics, computer vision, errorcorrecting coding theory, and artificial intelligence can all be reformulated as the computation of marginal probabilities on factor graphs. The belief propagation (BP) algorithm is an efficient way to solve these problems t ..."
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Cited by 574 (13 self)
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that is exact when the factor graph is a tree, but only approximate when the factor graph has cycles. We show that BP fixed points correspond to the stationary points of the Bethe approximation of the free energy for a factor graph. We explain how to obtain regionbased free energy approximations that improve
Typesetting Concrete Mathematics
 TUGBOAT
, 1989
"... ... tried my best to make the book mathematically interesting, but I also knew that it would be typographically interestingbecause it would be the first major use of a new typeface by Hermann Zapf, commissioned by the American Mathematical Society. This typeface, called AMS Euler, had been carefull ..."
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Cited by 656 (1 self)
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closes together smoothly when the curve returns to its starting point. A handwritten rather than mechanical style is appropriate for mathematics because people generally create math with pen, pencil, or chalk. The Euler letters are upright, not italic, so that there is a general consistency
The Amoeba Distributed Operating System
, 1992
"... INTRODUCTION Roughly speaking, we can divide the history of modern computing into the following eras: d 1970s: Timesharing (1 computer with many users) d 1980s: Personal computing (1 computer per user) d 1990s: Parallel computing (many computers per user) Until about 1980, computers were huge, e ..."
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Cited by 1061 (5 self)
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, expensive, and located in computer centers. Most organizations had a single large machine. In the 1980s, prices came down to the point where each user could have his or her own personal computer or workstation. These machines were often networked together, so that users could do remote logins on other
ATOMIC DECOMPOSITION BY BASIS PURSUIT
, 1995
"... The TimeFrequency and TimeScale communities have recently developed a large number of overcomplete waveform dictionaries  stationary wavelets, wavelet packets, cosine packets, chirplets, and warplets, to name a few. Decomposition into overcomplete systems is not unique, and several methods for d ..."
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Cited by 2684 (61 self)
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The TimeFrequency and TimeScale communities have recently developed a large number of overcomplete waveform dictionaries  stationary wavelets, wavelet packets, cosine packets, chirplets, and warplets, to name a few. Decomposition into overcomplete systems is not unique, and several methods
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