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Belief in the law of small numbers
 Psychological Bulletin
, 1971
"... People have erroneous intuitions about the laws of chance. In particular, they regard a sample randomly drawn from a population as highly representative, that is, similar to the population in all essential characteristics. The prevalence of the belief and its unfortunate consequences for psychologic ..."
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Cited by 332 (16 self)
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People have erroneous intuitions about the laws of chance. In particular, they regard a sample randomly drawn from a population as highly representative, that is, similar to the population in all essential characteristics. The prevalence of the belief and its unfortunate consequences for psychological research are illustrated by the responses of professional psychologists to a questionnaire concerning research decisions. Apparently, most psychologists have an exaggerated belief in the likelihood of successfully replicating an obtained finding. The sources of such beliefs, and their consequences for the conduct of scientific inquiry, are what this paper is about. Our thesis is that people have strong intuitions about random sampling; that these intuitions are wrong in fundamental respects; that these intuitions are
Determining the Number of Factors in Approximate Factor Models
, 2000
"... In this paper we develop some statistical theory for factor models of large dimensions. The focus is the determination of the number of factors, which is an unresolved issue in the rapidly growing literature on multifactor models. We propose a panel Cp criterion and show that the number of factors c ..."
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Cited by 561 (30 self)
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of the number of factors for configurations of the panel data encountered in practice. The idea that variations in a large number of economic variables can be modelled bya small number of reference variables is appealing and is used in manyeconomic analysis. In the finance literature, the arbitrage pricing
The SmallWorld Phenomenon: An Algorithmic Perspective
 in Proceedings of the 32nd ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing
, 2000
"... Long a matter of folklore, the “smallworld phenomenon ” — the principle that we are all linked by short chains of acquaintances — was inaugurated as an area of experimental study in the social sciences through the pioneering work of Stanley Milgram in the 1960’s. This work was among the first to m ..."
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Cited by 824 (5 self)
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Long a matter of folklore, the “smallworld phenomenon ” — the principle that we are all linked by short chains of acquaintances — was inaugurated as an area of experimental study in the social sciences through the pioneering work of Stanley Milgram in the 1960’s. This work was among the first
Learning and development in neural networks: The importance of starting small
 Cognition
, 1993
"... It is a striking fact that in humans the greatest learnmg occurs precisely at that point in time childhood when the most dramatic maturational changes also occur. This report describes possible synergistic interactions between maturational change and the ability to learn a complex domain (language ..."
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Cited by 531 (17 self)
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(language), as investigated in connectionist networks. The networks are trained to process complex sentences involving relative clauses, number agreement, and several types of verb argument structure. Training fails in the case of networks which are fully formed and ‘adultlike ’ in their capacity. Training
GPSLess Low Cost Outdoor Localization for Very Small Devices.
 IEEE Personal Communications Magazine,
, 2000
"... AbstractInstrumenting the physical world through large networks of wireless sensor nodes, particularly for applications like environmental monitoring of water and soil, requires that these nodes be very small, light, untethered and unobtrusive. The problem of localization, i.e., determining where ..."
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Cited by 1000 (27 self)
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AbstractInstrumenting the physical world through large networks of wireless sensor nodes, particularly for applications like environmental monitoring of water and soil, requires that these nodes be very small, light, untethered and unobtrusive. The problem of localization, i.e., determining where
A LinearTime Heuristic for Improving Network Partitions
, 1982
"... An iterative mincut heuristic for partitioning networks is presented whose worst case computation time, per pass, grows linearly with the size of the network. In practice, only a very small number of passes are typically needed, leading to a fast approximation algorithm for mincut partitioning. To d ..."
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Cited by 524 (0 self)
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An iterative mincut heuristic for partitioning networks is presented whose worst case computation time, per pass, grows linearly with the size of the network. In practice, only a very small number of passes are typically needed, leading to a fast approximation algorithm for mincut partitioning
SELF: The power of simplicity
, 1991
"... SELF is an objectoriented language for exploratory programming based on a small number of simple and concrete ideas: prototypes, slots, and behavior. Prototypes combine inheritance and instantiation to provide a framework that is simpler and more flexible than most objectoriented languages. Slots ..."
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Cited by 640 (19 self)
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SELF is an objectoriented language for exploratory programming based on a small number of simple and concrete ideas: prototypes, slots, and behavior. Prototypes combine inheritance and instantiation to provide a framework that is simpler and more flexible than most objectoriented languages
Entropy and the law of small numbers
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 2005
"... Two new informationtheoretic methods are introduced for establishing Poisson approximation inequalities. First, using only elementary informationtheoretic techniques it is shown that, when Sn = �n i=1 Xi is the sum of the (possibly dependent) binary random variables X1, X2,..., Xn, with E(Xi) = p ..."
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Cited by 48 (15 self)
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(Xi) = pi and E(Sn) = λ, then D(PSn�Po(λ)) ≤ n� i=1 p 2 i + � n � i=1 H(Xi) − H(X1, X2,..., Xn), where D(PSn�Po(λ)) is the relative entropy between the distribution of Sn and the Poisson(λ) distribution. The first term in this bound measures the individual smallness of the Xi and the second term measures
Feature selection: Evaluation, application, and small sample performance
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 1997
"... Abstract—A large number of algorithms have been proposed for feature subset selection. Our experimental results show that the sequential forward floating selection (SFFS) algorithm, proposed by Pudil et al., dominates the other algorithms tested. We study the problem of choosing an optimal feature s ..."
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Cited by 474 (13 self)
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Abstract—A large number of algorithms have been proposed for feature subset selection. Our experimental results show that the sequential forward floating selection (SFFS) algorithm, proposed by Pudil et al., dominates the other algorithms tested. We study the problem of choosing an optimal feature
Coupled hidden Markov models for complex action recognition
, 1996
"... We present algorithms for coupling and training hidden Markov models (HMMs) to model interacting processes, and demonstrate their superiority to conventional HMMs in a vision task classifying twohanded actions. HMMs are perhaps the most successful framework in perceptual computing for modeling and ..."
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Cited by 501 (22 self)
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and classifying dynamic behaviors, popular because they offer dynamic time warping, a training algorithm, and a clear Bayesian semantics. However, the Markovian framework makes strong restrictive assumptions about the system generating the signalthat it is a single process having a small number of states
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