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Proven Probable Formation
"... In 1954 Colombia inaugurated a steel plant at Belencito, Boyac•., in the ..."
Divergence measures based on the Shannon entropy
 IEEE Transactions on Information theory
, 1991
"... AbstractA new class of informationtheoretic divergence measures based on the Shannon entropy is introduced. Unlike the wellknown Kullback divergences, the new measures do not require the condition of absolute continuity to be satisfied by the probability distributions involved. More importantly, ..."
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Cited by 666 (0 self)
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, semiboundedness, and boundedness. Index TermsDivergence, dissimilarity measure, discrimination information, entropy, probability of error bounds. I.
Maximum entropy markov models for information extraction and segmentation
, 2000
"... Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are a powerful probabilistic tool for modeling sequential data, and have been applied with success to many textrelated tasks, such as partofspeech tagging, text segmentation and information extraction. In these cases, the observations are usually modeled as multinomial ..."
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Cited by 561 (18 self)
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, capitalization, formatting, partofspeech), and defines the conditional probability of state sequences given observation sequences. It does this by using the maximum entropy framework to fit a set of exponential models that represent the probability of a state given an observation and the previous state. We
The Evolution of Social and Economic Networks
 JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC THEORY 106, 265–295
, 2002
"... We examine the dynamic formation and stochastic evolution of networks connecting individuals. The payoff to an individual from an economic or social activity depends on the network of connections among individuals. Over time individuals form and sever links connecting themselves to other individuals ..."
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Cited by 889 (37 self)
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We examine the dynamic formation and stochastic evolution of networks connecting individuals. The payoff to an individual from an economic or social activity depends on the network of connections among individuals. Over time individuals form and sever links connecting themselves to other
How to improve Bayesian reasoning without instruction: Frequency formats
 Psychological Review
, 1995
"... Is the mind, by design, predisposed against performing Bayesian inference? Previous research on base rate neglect suggests that the mind lacks the appropriate cognitive algorithms. However, any claim against the existence of an algorithm, Bayesian or otherwise, is impossible to evaluate unless one s ..."
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Cited by 396 (29 self)
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specifies the information format in which it is designed to operate. The authors show that Bayesian algorithms are computationally simpler in frequency formats than in the probability formats used in previous research. Frequency formats correspond to the sequential way information is acquired in natural
Frequency versus probability formats in statistical word problems
, 2000
"... Three experiments examined people's ability to incorporate base rate information when judging posterior probabilities. Speci®cally, we tested the (Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (1996). Are humans good intuitive statisticians after all? Rethinking some conclusions from the literature on judgeme ..."
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on judgement under uncertainty. Cognition, 58, 1±73) conclusion that people's reasoning appears to follow Bayesian principles when they are presented with information in a frequency format, but not when information is presented as one case probabilities. First, we found that frequency formats were
Where do interorganizational networks come from?
, 1998
"... Organizations enter alliances with each other to access critical resources, but they rely on information from the network of prior alliances to determine with whom to cooperate. These new alliances modify the existing network, prompting an endogenous dynamic between organizational action and network ..."
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Cited by 388 (10 self)
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and network structure that drives the emergence of interorganizational networks. Testing these ideas on alliances formed in three industries over nine years, the authors show that the probability of a new alliance between specific organizations increases with their interdependence, but also with their prior
Frequency vs. probability formats: Framing the three doors problem. Paper presented at
 the Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society
, 1998
"... Instead of subscribing to the view that people are unable to perform Bayesian probabilistic inference, recent research suggests that the algorithms people naturally use to perform Bayesian inference are better adapted for information presented in a natural frequency format than in the common proba ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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probability format. We tested this hypothesis on the notoriously difficult three doors problem, inducing subjects to consider the likelihoods involved in terms of natural frequencies or in terms of probabilities. We then examined their ability to perform the mathematics underlying the problem, a stronger
Frequency formats, probability formats, or problem structure? A test of the nestedsets hypothesis in an extensional reasoning task
"... Five experiments addressed a controversy in the probability judgment literature that centers on the efficacy of framing probabilities as frequencies. The natural frequency view predicts that frequency formats attenuate errors, while the nestedsets view predicts that highlighting the setsubset stru ..."
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Cited by 2 (0 self)
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Five experiments addressed a controversy in the probability judgment literature that centers on the efficacy of framing probabilities as frequencies. The natural frequency view predicts that frequency formats attenuate errors, while the nestedsets view predicts that highlighting the set
Spreading dead zones and consequences for marine ecosystems
 Science
, 2008
"... Dead zones in the coastal oceans have spread exponentially since the 1960s and have serious consequences for ecosystem functioning. The formation of dead zones has been exacerbated by the increase in primary production and consequent worldwide coastal eutrophication fueled by riverine runoff of fert ..."
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Cited by 283 (4 self)
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Dead zones in the coastal oceans have spread exponentially since the 1960s and have serious consequences for ecosystem functioning. The formation of dead zones has been exacerbated by the increase in primary production and consequent worldwide coastal eutrophication fueled by riverine runoff
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