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45,539
Keying hash functions for message authentication
, 1996
"... The use of cryptographic hash functions like MD5 or SHA for message authentication has become a standard approach inmanyInternet applications and protocols. Though very easy to implement, these mechanisms are usually based on ad hoc techniques that lack a sound security analysis. We present new cons ..."
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Cited by 611 (39 self)
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constructions of message authentication schemes based on a cryptographic hash function. Our schemes, NMAC and HMAC, are proven to be secure as long as the underlying hash function has some reasonable cryptographic strengths. Moreover we show, in a quantitativeway, that the schemes retain almost all the security
Tractable reasoning and efficient query answering in description logics: The DLLite family
 J. OF AUTOMATED REASONING
, 2007
"... We propose a new family of Description Logics (DLs), called DLLite, specifically tailored to capture basic ontology languages, while keeping low complexity of reasoning. Reasoning here means not only computing subsumption between concepts, and checking satisfiability of the whole knowledge base, b ..."
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Cited by 497 (123 self)
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, but also answering complex queries (in particular, unions of conjunctive queries) over the instance level (ABox) of the DL knowledge base. We show that, for the DLs of the DLLite family, the usual DL reasoning tasks are polynomial in the size of the TBox, and query answering is LogSpace in the size
Fuzzy extractors: How to generate strong keys from biometrics and other noisy data
, 2008
"... We provide formal definitions and efficient secure techniques for • turning noisy information into keys usable for any cryptographic application, and, in particular, • reliably and securely authenticating biometric data. Our techniques apply not just to biometric information, but to any keying mater ..."
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Cited by 535 (38 self)
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if the input changes, as long as it remains reasonably close to the original. Thus, R can be used as a key in a cryptographic application. A secure sketch produces public information about its input w that does not reveal w, and yet allows exact recovery of w given another value that is close to w. Thus
Timing Attacks on Implementations of DiffieHellman, RSA, DSS, and Other Systems
, 1996
"... By carefully measuring the amount of time required to perform private key operations, attackers may be able to find fixed DiffieHellman exponents, factor RSA keys, and break other cryptosystems. Against a vulnerable system, the attack is computationally inexpensive and often requires only known cip ..."
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Cited by 651 (3 self)
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By carefully measuring the amount of time required to perform private key operations, attackers may be able to find fixed DiffieHellman exponents, factor RSA keys, and break other cryptosystems. Against a vulnerable system, the attack is computationally inexpensive and often requires only known
Guide to Elliptic Curve Cryptography
, 2004
"... Elliptic curves have been intensively studied in number theory and algebraic geometry for over 100 years and there is an enormous amount of literature on the subject. To quote the mathematician Serge Lang: It is possible to write endlessly on elliptic curves. (This is not a threat.) Elliptic curves ..."
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Cited by 610 (18 self)
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also figured prominently in the recent proof of Fermat's Last Theorem by Andrew Wiles. Originally pursued for purely aesthetic reasons, elliptic curves have recently been utilized in devising algorithms for factoring integers, primality proving, and in publickey cryptography. In this article, we
A New Method for Solving Hard Satisfiability Problems
 AAAI
, 1992
"... We introduce a greedy local search procedure called GSAT for solving propositional satisfiability problems. Our experiments show that this procedure can be used to solve hard, randomly generated problems that are an order of magnitude larger than those that can be handled by more traditional approac ..."
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Cited by 730 (21 self)
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discussed. GSAT is best viewed as a modelfinding procedure. Its good performance suggests that it may be advantageous to reformulate reasoning tasks that have traditionally been viewed as theoremproving problems as modelfinding tasks.
Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The implicit association test
 J PERSONALITY SOCIAL PSYCHOL 74:1464–1480
, 1998
"... An implicit association test (IAT) measures differential association of 2 target concepts with an attribute. The 2 concepts appear in a 2choice task (e.g., flower vs. insect names), and the attribute in a 2nd task (e.g., pleasant vs. unpleasant words for an evaluation attribute). When instructions ..."
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Cited by 1008 (63 self)
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An implicit association test (IAT) measures differential association of 2 target concepts with an attribute. The 2 concepts appear in a 2choice task (e.g., flower vs. insect names), and the attribute in a 2nd task (e.g., pleasant vs. unpleasant words for an evaluation attribute). When instructions
Structural equation modeling in practice: a review and recommended twostep approach.
 Psychological Bulletin,
, 1988
"... In this article, we provide guidance for substantive researchers on the use of structural equation modeling in practice for theory testing and development. We present a comprehensive, twostep modeling approach that employs a series of nested models and sequential chisquare difference tests. We di ..."
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Cited by 1825 (3 self)
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and confirmatory analysis, the distinction between complementary approaches for theory testing versus predictive application, and some developments in estimation methods also are discussed. Substantive use of structural equation modeling has been growing in psychology and the social sciences. One reason
Dualtask interference in simple tasks: Data and theory
 Psychological Bulletin
, 1994
"... People often have trouble performing 2 relatively simple tasks concurrently. The causes of this interference and its implications for the nature of attentional limitations have been controversial for 40 years, but recent experimental findings are beginning to provide some answers. Studies of the psy ..."
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Cited by 434 (12 self)
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People often have trouble performing 2 relatively simple tasks concurrently. The causes of this interference and its implications for the nature of attentional limitations have been controversial for 40 years, but recent experimental findings are beginning to provide some answers. Studies
A logic of authentication
 ACM TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTER SYSTEMS
, 1990
"... Questions of belief are essential in analyzing protocols for the authentication of principals in distributed computing systems. In this paper we motivate, set out, and exemplify a logic specifically designed for this analysis; we show how various protocols differ subtly with respect to the required ..."
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Cited by 1332 (22 self)
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to suggest improvements to the protocols. The reasoning about some protocols has been mechanically verified. This paper starts with an informal account of the problem, goes on to explain the formalism to be used, and gives examples of its application to protocols from the literature, both with sharedkey
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