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*Linguistic Difficulty (inherent); Linguistics; *Linguistic Theory; Second Language Learning
"... Experimental work on the concept of linguistic difficulty is summarized. Inherent linguistic difficulty is distinguished from contrastive linguistic difficulty. Studies of phonological acquisition are cited which tend to support the notion of an orderd acquisition of language features, and it is rec ..."
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Experimental work on the concept of linguistic difficulty is summarized. Inherent linguistic difficulty is distinguished from contrastive linguistic difficulty. Studies of phonological acquisition are cited which tend to support the notion of an orderd acquisition of language features
An inventory for measuring depression
 Archives of General Psychiatry
, 1961
"... The difficulties inherent in obtaining consistent and adequate diagnoses for the purposes of research and therapy have been pointed out by a number of authors. Pasamanick12 in a recent article viewed the low interclinician agreement on diagnosis as an indictment of the present state of psychiatry ..."
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Cited by 1195 (0 self)
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The difficulties inherent in obtaining consistent and adequate diagnoses for the purposes of research and therapy have been pointed out by a number of authors. Pasamanick12 in a recent article viewed the low interclinician agreement on diagnosis as an indictment of the present state of psychiatry
Discovery of Inference Rules for Question Answering
 Natural Language Engineering
, 2001
"... One of the main challenges in questionanswering is the potential mismatch between the expressions in questions and the expressions in texts. While humans appear to use inference rules such as “X writes Y ” implies “X is the author of Y ” in answering questions, such rules are generally unavailable ..."
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Cited by 309 (7 self)
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to questionanswering systems due to the inherent difficulty in constructing them. In this paper, we present an unsupervised algorithm for discovering inference rules from text. Our algorithm is based on an extended version of Harris ’ Distributional Hypothesis, which states that words that occurred
Inherent Parallelism
, 2008
"... To run a software application on a large number of parallel processors, N, and expect to obtain speed increases near N, each processor must be used effectively. Furthermore, given that the multiplier on speed, M, is sufficiently close to N, then one may want to add more processors while maintaining ..."
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the value of M, implying a linear increase in speed with number of processors. Anyone who has conducted scientific experiments along these lines will attest to the difficulty of achieving success as N gets large. Except in special “embarrassingly parallel ” cases, the amount of time and resource invested
Training a 3Node Neural Network is NPComplete
, 1992
"... We consider a 2layer, 3node, ninput neural network whose nodes compute linear threshold functions of their inputs. We show that it is NPcomplete to decide whether there exist weights and thresholds for this network so that it produces output consistent with a given set of training examples. We ..."
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Cited by 231 (3 self)
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extend the result to other simple networks. We also present a network for which training is hard but where switching to a more powerful representation makes training easier. These results suggest that those looking for perfect training algorithms cannot escape inherent computational difficulties just
NP IS AS EASY AS DETECTING UNIQUE SOLUTIONS
, 1986
"... For every known NPcomplete problem, the number of solutions of its instances varies over a large range, from zero to exponentially many. It is therefore natural to ask if the inherent intractability of NPcomplete problems is caused by this wide variation. We give a negative answer to this questi ..."
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Cited by 233 (1 self)
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For every known NPcomplete problem, the number of solutions of its instances varies over a large range, from zero to exponentially many. It is therefore natural to ask if the inherent intractability of NPcomplete problems is caused by this wide variation. We give a negative answer
Simulated Binary Crossover for Continuous Search Space
, 1994
"... The success of binarycoded genetic algorithms (GAs) in problems having discrete search space largely depends on the coding used to represent the problem variables and on the crossover operator that propagates buildingblocks from parent strings to children strings. In solving optimization problems ..."
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Cited by 220 (33 self)
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having continuous search space, binarycoded GAs discretize the search space by using a coding of the problem variables in binary strings. However, the coding of realvalued variables in finitelength strings causes a number of difficultiesinability to achieve arbitrary precision in the obtained
ScaLAPACK: A Portable Linear Algebra Library for Distributed Memory Computers  Design Issues and Performance (Technical Paper)
, 1996
"... This paper outlines the content and performance of ScaLAPACK, a collection of mathematical software for linear algebra computations on distributed memory computers. The importance of developing standards for computational and message passing interfaces is discussed. We present the different componen ..."
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Cited by 170 (56 self)
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components and building blocks of ScaLAPACK. This paper outlines the difficulties inherent in producing correct codes for networks of heterogeneous processors. We define a theoretical model of parallel computers dedicated to linear algebra applications: the Distributed Linear Algebra Machine (DLAM
On the difficulty of learning to program
 Loughborough University
"... Few students find learning to program easy. This paper considers why this is so by examining what makes this most basic of skills so difficult to acquire. There are many factors at work. Some are simply inherent in the subject while others have more to do with the modus operandi of teaching departme ..."
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Cited by 50 (0 self)
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Few students find learning to program easy. This paper considers why this is so by examining what makes this most basic of skills so difficult to acquire. There are many factors at work. Some are simply inherent in the subject while others have more to do with the modus operandi of teaching
Head Pose Estimation in Computer Vision: A Survey
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
, 2008
"... The capacity to estimate the head pose of another person is a common human ability that presents a unique challenge for computer vision systems. Compared to face detection and recognition, which have been the primary foci of facerelated vision research, identityinvariant head pose estimation has ..."
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Cited by 195 (13 self)
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has fewer rigorously evaluated systems or generic solutions. In this paper, we discuss the inherent difficulties in head pose estimation and present an organized survey describing the evolution of the field. Our discussion focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of each approach and spans 90
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