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A Framework for Defining Logics
 JOURNAL OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR COMPUTING MACHINERY
, 1993
"... The Edinburgh Logical Framework (LF) provides a means to define (or present) logics. It is based on a general treatment of syntax, rules, and proofs by means of a typed calculus with dependent types. Syntax is treated in a style similar to, but more general than, MartinLof's system of ariti ..."
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Cited by 807 (45 self)
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The Edinburgh Logical Framework (LF) provides a means to define (or present) logics. It is based on a general treatment of syntax, rules, and proofs by means of a typed calculus with dependent types. Syntax is treated in a style similar to, but more general than, MartinLof's system of arities. The treatment of rules and proofs focuses on his notion of a judgement. Logics are represented in LF via a new principle, the judgements as types principle, whereby each judgement is identified with the type of its proofs. This allows for a smooth treatment of discharge and variable occurrence conditions and leads to a uniform treatment of rules and proofs whereby rules are viewed as proofs of higherorder judgements and proof checking is reduced to type checking. The practical benefit of our treatment of formal systems is that logicindependent tools such as proof editors and proof checkers can be constructed.
The Viterbi algorithm
 Proceedings of the IEEE
, 1973
"... vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 211220, 1951. [7] J. L. Anderson and J. W..Ryon, “Electromagnetic radiation in accelerated systems, ” Phys. Rev., vol. 181, pp. 17651775, 1969. [8] C. V. Heer, “Resonant frequencies of an electromagnetic cavity in an accelerated system of reference, ” Phys. Reu., vol. 134, pp. A ..."
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Cited by 985 (3 self)
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vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 211220, 1951. [7] J. L. Anderson and J. W..Ryon, “Electromagnetic radiation in accelerated systems, ” Phys. Rev., vol. 181, pp. 17651775, 1969. [8] C. V. Heer, “Resonant frequencies of an electromagnetic cavity in an accelerated system of reference, ” Phys. Reu., vol. 134, pp. A799A804, 1964. [9] T. C. Mo, “Theory of electrodynamics in media in noninertial frames and applications, ” J. Math. Phys., vol. 11, pp. 25892610, 1970.
Bayes Factors
, 1995
"... In a 1935 paper, and in his book Theory of Probability, Jeffreys developed a methodology for quantifying the evidence in favor of a scientific theory. The centerpiece was a number, now called the Bayes factor, which is the posterior odds of the null hypothesis when the prior probability on the null ..."
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Cited by 1766 (74 self)
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In a 1935 paper, and in his book Theory of Probability, Jeffreys developed a methodology for quantifying the evidence in favor of a scientific theory. The centerpiece was a number, now called the Bayes factor, which is the posterior odds of the null hypothesis when the prior probability on the null is onehalf. Although there has been much discussion of Bayesian hypothesis testing in the context of criticism of P values, less attention has been given to the Bayes factor as a practical tool of applied statistics. In this paper we review and discuss the uses of Bayes factors in the context of five scientific applications in genetics, sports, ecology, sociology and psychology.
The Foundation of a Generic Theorem Prover
 Journal of Automated Reasoning
, 1989
"... Isabelle [28, 30] is an interactive theorem prover that supports a variety of logics. It represents rules as propositions (not as functions) and builds proofs by combining rules. These operations constitute a metalogic (or `logical framework') in which the objectlogics are formalized. Isabell ..."
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Cited by 471 (49 self)
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Isabelle [28, 30] is an interactive theorem prover that supports a variety of logics. It represents rules as propositions (not as functions) and builds proofs by combining rules. These operations constitute a metalogic (or `logical framework') in which the objectlogics are formalized. Isabelle is now based on higherorder logic  a precise and wellunderstood foundation. Examples illustrate use of this metalogic to formalize logics and proofs. Axioms for firstorder logic are shown sound and complete. Backwards proof is formalized by metareasoning about objectlevel entailment. Higherorder logic has several practical advantages over other metalogics. Many proof techniques are known, such as Huet's higherorder unification procedure. Key words: higherorder logic, higherorder unification, Isabelle, LCF, logical frameworks, metareasoning, natural deduction Contents 1 History and overview 2 2 The metalogic M 4 2.1 Syntax of the metalogic ......................... 4 2.2 ...
HigherOrder Abstract Syntax
"... We describe motivation, design, use, and implementation of higherorder abstract syntax as a central representation for programs, formulas, rules, and other syntactic objects in program manipulation and other formal systems where matching and substitution or syntax incorporates name binding informat ..."
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Cited by 358 (18 self)
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We describe motivation, design, use, and implementation of higherorder abstract syntax as a central representation for programs, formulas, rules, and other syntactic objects in program manipulation and other formal systems where matching and substitution or syntax incorporates name binding information in a uniform and language generic way. Thus it acts as a powerful link integrating diverse tools in such formal environments. We have implemented higherorder abstract syntax, a supporting matching and unification algorithm, and some clients in Common
Natural semantics
 In Proc. 4th Annual Symp. Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science, number 247 in Lect. Notes in Comp. Sci
, 1987
"... During the past few years, many researchers have begun to present semantic specifications in a style that has been strongly advocated by Plotkin in [19]. The purpose of this paper is to introduce in an intuitive manner the essential ideas of the method that we call now Natural Semantics ~ together w ..."
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Cited by 350 (2 self)
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During the past few years, many researchers have begun to present semantic specifications in a style that has been strongly advocated by Plotkin in [19]. The purpose of this paper is to introduce in an intuitive manner the essential ideas of the method that we call now Natural Semantics ~ together with its connections to ideas in logic and computing. Natural Semantics is of interest per se and because it is used as a semantics specification formalism for an interactive computer system that we are currently building at INRIA. 1.
Dependent Types in Practical Programming
 In Proceedings of ACM SIGPLAN Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages
, 1998
"... Programming is a notoriously errorprone process, and a great deal of evidence in practice has demonstrated that the use of a type system in a programming language can effectively detect program errors at compiletime. Moreover, some recent studies have indicated that the use of types can lead to si ..."
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Cited by 341 (38 self)
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Programming is a notoriously errorprone process, and a great deal of evidence in practice has demonstrated that the use of a type system in a programming language can effectively detect program errors at compiletime. Moreover, some recent studies have indicated that the use of types can lead
Two equivalent calculi of explicit substitution with confluence on metaterms and preservation of strong normalization (one with names and one firstorder) (Extended Abstract)
 In Proceedings of the 1st Int. Workshop on Explicit Substitutions: Theory and Applications to Programs and Proofs
, 1998
"... We propose a solution to the standing open problem of finding a calculus of explicit substitution with the following four properties: 1. simulates onestep βreduction, 2. is confluent on metaterms (also known as "open terms"), 3. has a strongly normalizing substitution subcalculus, an ..."
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Cited by 3 (1 self)
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an explicit representation of the "substitution lemma" of λcalculus, and the missing link in the solution is to express finiteness of all reductions starting from any reachable development of the source term. We give an encoding of the system as a first order system using de Bruijn's explicit
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