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W4: Realtime surveillance of people and their activities
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 2000
"... w4 is a real time visual surveillance system for detecting and tracking multiple people and monitoring their activities in an outdoor environment. It operates on monocular grayscale video imagery, or on video imagery from an infrared camera. W4 employs a combination of shape analysis and tracking t ..."
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Cited by 709 (9 self)
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w4 is a real time visual surveillance system for detecting and tracking multiple people and monitoring their activities in an outdoor environment. It operates on monocular grayscale video imagery, or on video imagery from an infrared camera. W4 employs a combination of shape analysis and tracking
Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media
 IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation
, 1966
"... The characteristics of the waves guided along a plane [I] P. S. Epstein, “On the possibility of electromagnetic surface waves, ” Proc. Nat’l dcad. Sciences, vol. 40, pp. 11581165, Deinterface which separates a semiinfinite region of free cember 1954. space from that of a magnetoionic medium are in ..."
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Cited by 1048 (0 self)
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on the boundary of a plasma in a magnetic field, ” Rasprost. Radwvoln i Ionosf., Trudy found that surface waves exist only when w,<wp and NIZMIRAN L’SSR, no. 17(27), pp. 208215, 1960. that also only for angular frequencies which lie bet\\een [4] S. R. Seshadri and A. Hessel, “Radiation from a source near a
Weighted Voting for Replicated Data
, 1979
"... In a new algorithm for maintaining replicated data, every copy of a replicated file is assigned some number of votes. Every transaction collects a read quorum of r votes to read a file, and a write quorum of w votes to write a file, such that r+w is greater than the total number number of votes assi ..."
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Cited by 598 (0 self)
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r, w, and the file's voting configuration. The algorithm guarantees serial consistency, admits temporary copies in a natural way by the introduction of copies of an application system called Violet.
Estimation of probabilities from sparse data for the language model component of a speech recognizer
 IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing
, 1987
"... AbstractThe description of a novel type of rngram language model is given. The model offers, via a nonlinear recursive procedure, a computation and space efficient solution to the problem of estimating probabilities from sparse data. This solution compares favorably to other proposed methods. Wh ..."
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Cited by 799 (2 self)
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word (mgram) which occurred in the sample r times is r* PT = where r We call a procedure of replacing a count r with a modified count r ’ “discounting ” and a ratio rt/r a discount coefficient dr. When r ’ = r*, we have Turing’s discounting. Let us denote the mgram wl, *.., w, as wy and the number
Reaching Agreement in the Presence of Faults
 JOURNAL OF THE ACM
, 1980
"... The problem addressed here concerns a set of isolated processors, some unknown subset of which may be faulty, that communicate only by means of twoparty messages. Each nonfaulty processor has a private value of reformation that must be communicated to each other nonfanlty processor. Nonfaulty proc ..."
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Cited by 653 (8 self)
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nonfanlty processor must be that processor's private value, and the value inferred for a faulty one must be consistent wRh the corresponding value inferred by each other nonfanlty processor It is shown that the problem is solvable for, and only for, n> _ 3m + 1, where m IS the number of faulty
Symbolic Model Checking: 10^20 States and Beyond
, 1992
"... Many different methods have been devised for automatically verifying finite state systems by examining stategraph models of system behavior. These methods all depend on decision procedures that explicitly represent the state space using a list or a table that grows in proportion to the number of st ..."
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Cited by 758 (41 self)
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of states. We describe a general method that represents the state space symbolical/y instead of explicitly. The generality of our method comes from using a dialect of the MuCalculus as the primary specification language. We describe a model checking algorithm for MuCalculus formulas that uses Bryant’s
Pricing with a Smile
 Risk Magazine
, 1994
"... prices as a function of volatility. If an option price is given by the market we can invert this relationship to get the implied volatility. If the model were perfect, this implied value would be the same for all option market prices, but reality shows this is not the case. Implied Black–Scholes vol ..."
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Cited by 445 (1 self)
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the former is the quadratic mean of the latter. The spot process S is then governed by the following stochastic differential equation: dS �rt () dt��() t dW
Policy gradient methods for reinforcement learning with function approximation.
 In NIPS,
, 1999
"... Abstract Function approximation is essential to reinforcement learning, but the standard approach of approximating a value function and determining a policy from it has so far proven theoretically intractable. In this paper we explore an alternative approach in which the policy is explicitly repres ..."
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Cited by 439 (20 self)
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represented by its own function approximator, independent of the value function, and is updated according to the gradient of expected reward with respect to the policy parameters. Williams's REINFORCE method and actorcritic methods are examples of this approach. Our main new result is to show
The RC5 Encryption Algorithm
, 1995
"... Abstract. This document describes the RC5 encryption algorithm. RC5 is a fast symmetric block cipher suitable for hardware or software implementations. A novel feature of RC5 is the heavy use of datadependent rotations. RC5 has a variable word size, a variable number of rounds, and a variablelengt ..."
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Cited by 363 (7 self)
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length secret key. 1 AParameterized Family of Encryption Algorithms RC5 is wordoriented: all of the primitive operations work on wbit words as their basic unit of information. Here we assume w = 32, although the formal speci cation of RC5 admits variants for other word lengths, such asw = 64 bits. RC5 has two
On the bursty evolution of Blogspace
, 2003
"... O)( 1 #$ #+&PQ+&,0,/RP 2 ":9:0/ +%&P &.F0, )& ;)S O)( 1 #$ #+&PQ+&,0,/RP 2 ":9:0/ +% # O,<&7& =1 P &7"U;(Z ;>A@CB;D,[\D]K,D?^_ B`Bba]@C>Ac >AG8H$^2d)@C]E 9='0,*+82 &e " & Q (T0 U;Ub%&7*',#$ %& :3 Q ..."
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Cited by 365 (8 self)
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" # %& L (!0, 0,/ 0, U; U;r82 U; 3!j" L8%=+*b" # %& L (!0, 0,/ 288 &Q"&&U;P)2 ":3 r"uw") P =)0 F%, W2)&7& Nl 180 0, u %="N = (`)y y+ 9S ="=)?l W2)&7& Nl 180 0 u#$"`= 8r*/)/9Y %8&1U;,&0 (0/ 9:l%+)VQ&V U
Results 1  10
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