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A survey of generalpurpose computation on graphics hardware
, 2007
"... The rapid increase in the performance of graphics hardware, coupled with recent improvements in its programmability, have made graphics hardware acompelling platform for computationally demanding tasks in awide variety of application domains. In this report, we describe, summarize, and analyze the l ..."
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Cited by 545 (18 self)
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the main body of this report at two separate audiences. First, we describe the techniques used in mapping generalpurpose computation to graphics hardware. We believe these techniques will be generally useful for researchers who plan to develop the next generation of GPGPU algorithms and techniques. Second
Dryad: Distributed DataParallel Programs from Sequential Building Blocks
 In EuroSys
, 2007
"... Dryad is a generalpurpose distributed execution engine for coarsegrain dataparallel applications. A Dryad application combines computational “vertices ” with communication “channels ” to form a dataflow graph. Dryad runs the application by executing the vertices of this graph on a set of availa ..."
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Cited by 730 (27 self)
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Dryad is a generalpurpose distributed execution engine for coarsegrain dataparallel applications. A Dryad application combines computational “vertices ” with communication “channels ” to form a dataflow graph. Dryad runs the application by executing the vertices of this graph on a set of available computers, communicating as appropriate through files, TCP pipes, and sharedmemory FIFOs. The vertices provided by the application developer are quite simple and are usually written as sequential programs with no thread creation or locking. Concurrency arises from Dryad scheduling vertices to run simultaneously on multiple computers, or on multiple CPU cores within a computer. The application can discover the size and placement of data at run time, and modify the graph as the computation progresses to make efficient use of the available resources. Dryad is designed to scale from powerful multicore single computers, through small clusters of computers, to data centers with thousands of computers. The Dryad execution engine handles all the difficult problems of creating a large distributed, concurrent application: scheduling the use of computers and their CPUs, recovering from communication or computer failures, and transporting data between vertices.
Bayes Factors
, 1995
"... In a 1935 paper, and in his book Theory of Probability, Jeffreys developed a methodology for quantifying the evidence in favor of a scientific theory. The centerpiece was a number, now called the Bayes factor, which is the posterior odds of the null hypothesis when the prior probability on the null ..."
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Cited by 1766 (74 self)
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In a 1935 paper, and in his book Theory of Probability, Jeffreys developed a methodology for quantifying the evidence in favor of a scientific theory. The centerpiece was a number, now called the Bayes factor, which is the posterior odds of the null hypothesis when the prior probability on the null is onehalf. Although there has been much discussion of Bayesian hypothesis testing in the context of criticism of P values, less attention has been given to the Bayes factor as a practical tool of applied statistics. In this paper we review and discuss the uses of Bayes factors in the context of five scientific applications in genetics, sports, ecology, sociology and psychology.
Sequential data assimilation with a nonlinear quasigeostrophic model using Monte Carlo methods to forecast error statistics
 J. Geophys. Res
, 1994
"... . A new sequential data assimilation method is discussed. It is based on forecasting the error statistics using Monte Carlo methods, a better alternative than solving the traditional and computationally extremely demanding approximate error covariance equation used in the extended Kalman filter. The ..."
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Cited by 782 (22 self)
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. A new sequential data assimilation method is discussed. It is based on forecasting the error statistics using Monte Carlo methods, a better alternative than solving the traditional and computationally extremely demanding approximate error covariance equation used in the extended Kalman filter. The unbounded error growth found in the extended Kalman filter, which is caused by an overly simplified closure in the error covariance equation, is completely eliminated. Open boundaries can be handled as long as the ocean model is well posed. Wellknown numerical instabilities associated with the error covariance equation are avoided because storage and evolution of the error covariance matrix itself are not needed. The results are also better than what is provided by the extended Kalman filter since there is no closure problem and the quality of the forecast error statistics therefore improves. The method should be feasible also for more sophisticated primitive equation models. The computati...
Volume of Fluid (VOF) Method for the Dynamics of Free Boundaries,” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report
"... Several methods have been previously used to approximate free boundaries in tinitedifference numerical simulations. A simple, but powerful, method is described that is based on the concept of a fractional volume of fluid (VOF). This method is shown to be more flexible and efftcient than other method ..."
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Cited by 544 (2 self)
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Several methods have been previously used to approximate free boundaries in tinitedifference numerical simulations. A simple, but powerful, method is described that is based on the concept of a fractional volume of fluid (VOF). This method is shown to be more flexible and efftcient than other methods for treating complicated free boundary configurations. To illustrate the method, a description is given for an incompressible hydrodynamics code, SOLAVOF, that uses the VOF technique to track free fluid surfaces. 1.
The sources and consequences of embeddedness for the economic performance of organizations: The network effect
 American Sociological Review
, 1996
"... In this paper, I attempt to advance the concept of embeddedness beyond the level of a programmatic statement by developing a formulation that specifies how embeddedness and network structure affect economic action. On the basis of existing theory and original ethnographies of 23 apparel firms, I dev ..."
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Cited by 709 (8 self)
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In this paper, I attempt to advance the concept of embeddedness beyond the level of a programmatic statement by developing a formulation that specifies how embeddedness and network structure affect economic action. On the basis of existing theory and original ethnographies of 23 apparel firms, I develop a systematic scheme that more fully demarcates the unique features, functions, and sources of embeddedness. From this scheme, I derive a set of refutable implications and test their plausibility, using another data set on the network ties of all better dress apparel firms in the New York apparel economy. Results reveal that embeddedness is an exchange system with unique opportunities relative to markets and that firms organized in networks have higher survival chances than do firms which maintain arm'slength market relationships. The positive effect of embeddedness reaches a threshold, however, after which point the positive effect reverses itself. Embeddedness 1
Fusion, Propagation, and Structuring in Belief Networks
 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
, 1986
"... Belief networks are directed acyclic graphs in which the nodes represent propositions (or variables), the arcs signify direct dependencies between the linked propositions, and the strengths of these dependencies are quantified by conditional probabilities. A network of this sort can be used to repre ..."
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Cited by 482 (8 self)
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Belief networks are directed acyclic graphs in which the nodes represent propositions (or variables), the arcs signify direct dependencies between the linked propositions, and the strengths of these dependencies are quantified by conditional probabilities. A network of this sort can be used to represent the generic knowledge of a domain expert, and it turns into a computational architecture if the links are used not merely for storing factual knowledge but also for directing and activating the data flow in the computations which manipulate this knowledge. The first part of the paper deals with the task of fusing and propagating the impacts of new information through the networks in such a way that, when equilibrium is reached, each proposition will be assigned a measure of belief consistent with the axioms of probability theory. It is shown that if the network is singly connected (e.g. treestructured), then probabilities can be updated by local propagation in an isomorphic network of parallel and autonomous processors and that the impact of new information can be imparted to all propositions in time proportional to the longest path in the network. The second part of the paper deals with the problem of finding a treestructured representation for a collection of probabilistically coupled propositions using auxiliary (dummy) variables, colloquially called "hidden causes. " It is shown that if such a treestructured representation exists, then it is possible to uniquely uncover the topology of the tree by observing pairwise dependencies among the available propositions (i.e., the leaves of the tree). The entire tree structure, including the strengths of all internal relationships, can be reconstructed in time proportional to n log n, where n is the number of leaves.
A rapid hierarchical radiosity algorithm
 Computer Graphics
, 1991
"... This paper presents a rapid hierarchical radiosity algorithm for illuminating scenes containing lar e polygonal patches. The afgorithm constructs a hierarchic“J representation of the form factor matrix by adaptively subdividing patches into su bpatches according to a usersupplied error bound. The a ..."
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Cited by 412 (11 self)
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This paper presents a rapid hierarchical radiosity algorithm for illuminating scenes containing lar e polygonal patches. The afgorithm constructs a hierarchic“J representation of the form factor matrix by adaptively subdividing patches into su bpatches according to a usersupplied error bound
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