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Improved methods for building protein models in electron density maps and the location of errors in these models. Acta Crystallogr. sect
 A
, 1991
"... Map interpretation remains a critical step in solving the structure of a macromolecule. Errors introduced at this early stage may persist throughout crystallographic refinement and result in an incorrect structure. The normally quoted crystallographic residual is often a poor description for the q ..."
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Cited by 1016 (9 self)
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for the quality of the model. Strategies and tools are described that help to alleviate this problem. These simplify the modelbuilding process, quantify the goodness of fit of the model on a perresidue basis and locate possible errors in peptide and sidechain conformations.
Teleporting an Unknown Quantum State via Dual Classical and EPR Channels
, 1993
"... An unknown quantum state jOEi can be disassembled into, then later reconstructed from, purely classical information and purely nonclassical EPR correlations. To do so the sender, "Alice," and the receiver, "Bob," must prearrange the sharing of an EPRcorrelated pair of particles. ..."
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Cited by 648 (22 self)
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An unknown quantum state jOEi can be disassembled into, then later reconstructed from, purely classical information and purely nonclassical EPR correlations. To do so the sender, "Alice," and the receiver, "Bob," must prearrange the sharing of an EPRcorrelated pair of particles. Alice makes a joint measurement on her EPR particle and the unknown quantum system, and sends Bob the classical result of this measurement. Knowing this, Bob can convert the state of his EPR particle into an exact replica of the unknown state jOEi which Alice destroyed. Expanded version of manuscript submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett. December 1992 PACS numbers: 03.65.Bz, 42.50.Dv, 89.70.+c (a) Permanent address. The existence of long range correlations between EinsteinPodolskyRosen (EPR) [1] pairs of particles raises the question of their use for information transfer. Einstein himself used the word "telepathically" in this context [2]. It is known that instantaneous information transfer is definitely impossib...
The empirical case for two systems of reasoning
, 1996
"... Distinctions have been proposed between systems of reasoning for centuries. This article distills properties shared by many of these distinctions and characterizes the resulting systems in light of recent findings and theoretical developments. One system is associative because its computations ref ..."
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Cited by 631 (4 self)
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and can simultaneously generate different solutions to a reasoning problem. The rulebased system can suppress the associative system but not completely inhibit it. The article reviews evidence in favor of the distinction and its characterization.
Where the REALLY Hard Problems Are
 IN J. MYLOPOULOS AND R. REITER (EDS.), PROCEEDINGS OF 12TH INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON AI (IJCAI91),VOLUME 1
, 1991
"... It is well known that for many NPcomplete problems, such as KSat, etc., typical cases are easy to solve; so that computationally hard cases must be rare (assuming P != NP). This paper shows that NPcomplete problems can be summarized by at least one "order parameter", and that the hard p ..."
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Cited by 681 (1 self)
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problems occur at a critical value of such a parameter. This critical value separates two regions of characteristically different properties. For example, for Kcolorability, the critical value separates overconstrained from underconstrained random graphs, and it marks the value at which the probability
Large margin methods for structured and interdependent output variables
 JOURNAL OF MACHINE LEARNING RESEARCH
, 2005
"... Learning general functional dependencies between arbitrary input and output spaces is one of the key challenges in computational intelligence. While recent progress in machine learning has mainly focused on designing flexible and powerful input representations, this paper addresses the complementary ..."
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Cited by 612 (12 self)
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that solves the optimization problem in polynomial time for a large class of problems. The proposed method has important applications in areas such as computational biology, natural language processing, information retrieval/extraction, and optical character recognition. Experiments from various domains
The Extended Linear Complementarity Problem
, 1993
"... We consider an extension of the horizontal linear complementarity problem, which we call the extended linear complementarity problem (XLCP). With the aid of a natural bilinear program, we establish various properties of this extended complementarity problem; these include the convexity of the biline ..."
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Cited by 776 (28 self)
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We consider an extension of the horizontal linear complementarity problem, which we call the extended linear complementarity problem (XLCP). With the aid of a natural bilinear program, we establish various properties of this extended complementarity problem; these include the convexity
Cognitive load during problem solving: effects on learning
 COGNITIVE SCIENCE
, 1988
"... Considerable evidence indicates that domain specific knowledge in the form of schemes is the primary factor distinguishing experts from novices in problemsolving skill. Evidence that conventional problemsolving activity is not effective in schema acquisition is also accumulating. It is suggested t ..."
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Cited by 603 (13 self)
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that a major reason for the ineffectiveness of problem solving as a learning device, is that the cognitive processes required by the two activities overlap insufficiently, and that conventional problem solving in the form of meansends analysis requires a relatively large amount of cognitive processing
Ontologies: Principles, methods and applications
 KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING REVIEW
, 1996
"... This paper is intended to serve as a comprehensive introduction to the emerging field concerned with the design and use of ontologies. We observe that disparate backgrounds, languages, tools, and techniques are a major barrier to effective communication among people, organisations, and/or software s ..."
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Cited by 570 (3 self)
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This paper is intended to serve as a comprehensive introduction to the emerging field concerned with the design and use of ontologies. We observe that disparate backgrounds, languages, tools, and techniques are a major barrier to effective communication among people, organisations, and/or software systems. We show how the development and implementation of an explicit account of a shared understanding (i.e. an `ontology') in a given subject area, can improve such communication, which in turn, can give rise to greater reuse and sharing, interoperability, and more reliable software. After motivating their need, we clarify just what ontologies are and what purposes they serve. We outline a methodology for developing and evaluating ontologies, first discussing informal techniques, concerning such issues as scoping, handling ambiguity, reaching agreement and producing de nitions. We then consider the bene ts of and describe, a more formal approach. We revisit the scoping phase, and discuss the role of formal languages and techniques in the specification, implementation and evaluation of ontologies. Finally, we review the state of the art and practice in this emerging field,
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