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The Symbol Grounding Problem
, 1990
"... There has been much discussion recently about the scope and limits of purely symbolic models of the mind and about the proper role of connectionism in cognitive modeling. This paper describes the "symbol grounding problem": How can the semantic interpretation of a formal symbol system be m ..."
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Cited by 1072 (18 self)
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There has been much discussion recently about the scope and limits of purely symbolic models of the mind and about the proper role of connectionism in cognitive modeling. This paper describes the "symbol grounding problem": How can the semantic interpretation of a formal symbol system
Homological Algebra of Mirror Symmetry
 in Proceedings of the International Congress of Mathematicians
, 1994
"... Mirror Symmetry was discovered several years ago in string theory as a duality between families of 3dimensional CalabiYau manifolds (more precisely, complex algebraic manifolds possessing holomorphic volume elements without zeroes). The name comes from the symmetry among Hodge numbers. For dual Ca ..."
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Cited by 529 (3 self)
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Mirror Symmetry was discovered several years ago in string theory as a duality between families of 3dimensional CalabiYau manifolds (more precisely, complex algebraic manifolds possessing holomorphic volume elements without zeroes). The name comes from the symmetry among Hodge numbers. For dual
Recursive Functions of Symbolic Expressions and Their Computation by Machine, Part I
, 1960
"... this paper in L a T E Xpartly supported by ARPA (ONR) grant N000149410775 to Stanford University where John McCarthy has been since 1962. Copied with minor notational changes from CACM, April 1960. If you want the exact typography, look there. Current address, John McCarthy, Computer Science Depa ..."
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Cited by 452 (3 self)
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for the IBM 704. Next comes another way of describing computations with symbolic expressions, and finally we give a recursive function interpretation of flow charts. We hope to describe some of the symbolic computations for which LISP has been used in another paper, and also to give elsewhere some
Evaluating the Accuracy of SamplingBased Approaches to the Calculation of Posterior Moments
 IN BAYESIAN STATISTICS
, 1992
"... Data augmentation and Gibbs sampling are two closely related, samplingbased approaches to the calculation of posterior moments. The fact that each produces a sample whose constituents are neither independent nor identically distributed complicates the assessment of convergence and numerical accurac ..."
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Cited by 583 (14 self)
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Data augmentation and Gibbs sampling are two closely related, samplingbased approaches to the calculation of posterior moments. The fact that each produces a sample whose constituents are neither independent nor identically distributed complicates the assessment of convergence and numerical
Using Linear Algebra for Intelligent Information Retrieval
 SIAM REVIEW
, 1995
"... Currently, most approaches to retrieving textual materials from scientific databases depend on a lexical match between words in users' requests and those in or assigned to documents in a database. Because of the tremendous diversity in the words people use to describe the same document, lexical ..."
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Cited by 672 (18 self)
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Currently, most approaches to retrieving textual materials from scientific databases depend on a lexical match between words in users' requests and those in or assigned to documents in a database. Because of the tremendous diversity in the words people use to describe the same document, lexical methods are necessarily incomplete and imprecise. Using the singular value decomposition (SVD), one can take advantage of the implicit higherorder structure in the association of terms with documents by determining the SVD of large sparse term by document matrices. Terms and documents represented by 200300 of the largest singular vectors are then matched against user queries. We call this retrieval method Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) because the subspace represents important associative relationships between terms and documents that are not evident in individual documents. LSI is a completely automatic yet intelligent indexing method, widely applicable, and a promising way to improve users...
Culture in action: Symbols and strategies
 American Sociological Review
, 1986
"... Culture influences action not by providing the ultimate values toward which action is oriented, but by shaping a repertoire or "tool kit " of habits, skills, and styles from which people construct "strategies of action. " Two models of cultural influence are developed, for settle ..."
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Cited by 455 (0 self)
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Culture influences action not by providing the ultimate values toward which action is oriented, but by shaping a repertoire or "tool kit " of habits, skills, and styles from which people construct "strategies of action. " Two models of cultural influence are developed, for settled and unsettled cultural periods. In settled periods, culture independently influences action, but only by providing resources from which people can construct diverse lines of action. In unsettled cultural periods, explicit ideologies directly govern action, but structural opportunities for action determine which among competing ideologies survive in the long run. This alternative view of culture offers new opportunities for systematic, differentiated arguments about culture's causal role in shaping action. The reigning model used to understand culture's effects on action is fundamentally misleading. It assumes that culture shapes action by supplying ultimate ends or values toward which action is directed, thus making values
Guarded Commands, Nondeterminacy and Formal Derivation of Programs
, 1975
"... Socalled "guarded commands" are introduced as a building block for alternative and repetitive constructs that allow nondeterministic program components for which at least the activity evoked, but possibly even the final state, is not necessarily uniqilely determined by the initial state. ..."
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Cited by 521 (0 self)
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. For the formal derivation of programs expressed in terms of these constructs, a calculus will be be shown.
Graphbased algorithms for Boolean function manipulation
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTERS
, 1986
"... In this paper we present a new data structure for representing Boolean functions and an associated set of manipulation algorithms. Functions are represented by directed, acyclic graphs in a manner similar to the representations introduced by Lee [1] and Akers [2], but with further restrictions on th ..."
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Cited by 3499 (47 self)
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In this paper we present a new data structure for representing Boolean functions and an associated set of manipulation algorithms. Functions are represented by directed, acyclic graphs in a manner similar to the representations introduced by Lee [1] and Akers [2], but with further restrictions
Greedy Function Approximation: A Gradient Boosting Machine
 Annals of Statistics
, 2000
"... Function approximation is viewed from the perspective of numerical optimization in function space, rather than parameter space. A connection is made between stagewise additive expansions and steepest{descent minimization. A general gradient{descent \boosting" paradigm is developed for additi ..."
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Cited by 951 (12 self)
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for additive expansions based on any tting criterion. Specic algorithms are presented for least{squares, least{absolute{deviation, and Huber{M loss functions for regression, and multi{class logistic likelihood for classication. Special enhancements are derived for the particular case where the individual
PseudoRandom Generation from OneWay Functions
 PROC. 20TH STOC
, 1988
"... Pseudorandom generators are fundamental to many theoretical and applied aspects of computing. We show howto construct a pseudorandom generator from any oneway function. Since it is easy to construct a oneway function from a pseudorandom generator, this result shows that there is a pseudorandom gene ..."
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Cited by 887 (22 self)
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Pseudorandom generators are fundamental to many theoretical and applied aspects of computing. We show howto construct a pseudorandom generator from any oneway function. Since it is easy to construct a oneway function from a pseudorandom generator, this result shows that there is a pseudorandom
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