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What does it mean for a computer to "have" emotions? Rosalind W. Picard
 In: Emotions in Humans and
, 2001
"... Introduction There is a lot of talk about giving machines emotions, some of it fluff. Recently at a large technical meeting, a researcher stood up and talked of how a Barney stuffed animal (the purple dinosaur for kids) "has emotions." He did not define what he meant by this, but after re ..."
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Introduction There is a lot of talk about giving machines emotions, some of it fluff. Recently at a large technical meeting, a researcher stood up and talked of how a Barney stuffed animal (the purple dinosaur for kids) "has emotions." He did not define what he meant by this, but after repeating it several times, it became apparent that children attributed emotions to Barney, and that Barney had deliberately expressive behaviors that would encourage the kids to think Barney had emotions. But kids have attributed emotions to dolls and stuffed animals for as long as we know; and most of my technical colleagues would agree that such toys have never had and still do not have emotions. What is different now, which prompts a researcher to make such a claim? Is the computational plush an example of a computer that really does have emotions? If not Barney, then what would be an example of a computational system that has emotions? I am not a philosopher, and this paper will not be a di
Shiftable Multiscale Transforms
, 1992
"... Orthogonal wavelet transforms have recently become a popular representation for multiscale signal and image analysis. One of the major drawbacks of these representations is their lack of translation invariance: the content of wavelet subbands is unstable under translations of the input signal. Wavel ..."
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Cited by 557 (36 self)
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Orthogonal wavelet transforms have recently become a popular representation for multiscale signal and image analysis. One of the major drawbacks of these representations is their lack of translation invariance: the content of wavelet subbands is unstable under translations of the input signal. Wavelet transforms are also unstable with respect to dilations of the input signal, and in two dimensions, rotations of the input signal. We formalize these problems by defining a type of translation invariance that we call "shiftability". In the spatial domain, shiftability corresponds to a lack of aliasing; thus, the conditions under which the property holds are specified by the sampling theorem. Shiftability may also be considered in the context of other domains, particularly orientation and scale. We explore "jointly shiftable" transforms that are simultaneously shiftable in more than one domain. Two examples of jointly shiftable transforms are designed and implemented: a onedimensional tran...
The Design and Use of Steerable Filters
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 1991
"... Oriented filters are useful in many early vision and image processing tasks. One often needs to apply the same filter, rotated to different angles under adaptive control, or wishes to calculate the filter response at various orientations. We present an efficient architecture to synthesize filters of ..."
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Cited by 1079 (11 self)
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Oriented filters are useful in many early vision and image processing tasks. One often needs to apply the same filter, rotated to different angles under adaptive control, or wishes to calculate the filter response at various orientations. We present an efficient architecture to synthesize filters of arbitrary orientations from linear combinations of basis filters, allowing one to adaptively "steer" a filter to any orientation, and to determine analytically the filter output as a function of orientation.
Mean shift, mode seeking, and clustering
 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
, 1995
"... AbstractMean shift, a simple iterative procedure that shifts each data point to the average of data points in its neighborhood, is generalized and analyzed in this paper. This generalization makes some kmeans like clustering algorithms its special cases. It is shown that mean shift is a modeseeki ..."
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Cited by 620 (0 self)
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AbstractMean shift, a simple iterative procedure that shifts each data point to the average of data points in its neighborhood, is generalized and analyzed in this paper. This generalization makes some kmeans like clustering algorithms its special cases. It is shown that mean shift is a modeseeking process on a surface constructed with a “shadow ” kernel. For Gaussian kernels, mean shift is a gradient mapping. Convergence is studied for mean shift iterations. Cluster analysis is treated as a deterministic problem of finding a fixed point of mean shift that characterizes the data. Applications in clustering and Hough transform are demonstrated. Mean shift is also considered as an evolutionary strategy that performs multistart global optimization. Index TermsMean shift, gradient descent, global optimization, Hough transform, cluster analysis, kmeans clustering. I.
Texture Synthesis by Nonparametric Sampling
 In International Conference on Computer Vision
, 1999
"... A nonparametric method for texture synthesis is proposed. The texture synthesis process grows a new image outward from an initial seed, one pixel at a time. A Markov random field model is assumed, and the conditional distribution of a pixel given all its neighbors synthesized so far is estimated by ..."
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Cited by 1014 (7 self)
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A nonparametric method for texture synthesis is proposed. The texture synthesis process grows a new image outward from an initial seed, one pixel at a time. A Markov random field model is assumed, and the conditional distribution of a pixel given all its neighbors synthesized so far is estimated by querying the sample image and finding all similar neighborhoods. The degree of randomness is controlled by a single perceptually intuitive parameter. The method aims at preserving as much local structure as possible and produces good results for a wide variety of synthetic and realworld textures. 1. Introduction Texture synthesis has been an active research topic in computer vision both as a way to verify texture analysis methods, as well as in its own right. Potential applications of a successful texture synthesis algorithm are broad, including occlusion fillin, lossy image and video compression, foreground removal, etc. The problem of texture synthesis can be formulated as follows: let...
Inverse Acoustic and Electromagnetic Scattering Theory, Second Edition
, 1998
"... Abstract. This paper is a survey of the inverse scattering problem for timeharmonic acoustic and electromagnetic waves at fixed frequency. We begin by a discussion of “weak scattering ” and Newtontype methods for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves, including a brief discussi ..."
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Cited by 1072 (45 self)
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Abstract. This paper is a survey of the inverse scattering problem for timeharmonic acoustic and electromagnetic waves at fixed frequency. We begin by a discussion of “weak scattering ” and Newtontype methods for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves, including a brief discussion of Tikhonov’s method for the numerical solution of illposed problems. We then proceed to prove a uniqueness theorem for the inverse obstacle problems for acoustic waves and the linear sampling method for reconstructing the shape of a scattering obstacle from far field data. Included in our discussion is a description of Kirsch’s factorization method for solving this problem. We then turn our attention to uniqueness and reconstruction algorithms for determining the support of an inhomogeneous, anisotropic media from acoustic far field data. Our survey is concluded by a brief discussion of the inverse scattering problem for timeharmonic electromagnetic waves. 1.
Regression Shrinkage and Selection Via the Lasso
 Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B
, 1994
"... We propose a new method for estimation in linear models. The "lasso" minimizes the residual sum of squares subject to the sum of the absolute value of the coefficients being less than a constant. Because of the nature of this constraint it tends to produce some coefficients that are exactl ..."
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Cited by 4055 (51 self)
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We propose a new method for estimation in linear models. The "lasso" minimizes the residual sum of squares subject to the sum of the absolute value of the coefficients being less than a constant. Because of the nature of this constraint it tends to produce some coefficients that are exactly zero and hence gives interpretable models. Our simulation studies suggest that the lasso enjoys some of the favourable properties of both subset selection and ridge regression. It produces interpretable models like subset selection and exhibits the stability of ridge regression. There is also an interesting relationship with recent work in adaptive function estimation by Donoho and Johnstone. The lasso idea is quite general and can be applied in a variety of statistical models: extensions to generalized regression models and treebased models are briefly described. Keywords: regression, subset selection, shrinkage, quadratic programming. 1 Introduction Consider the usual regression situation: we h...
Dual polyhedra and mirror symmetry for Calabi–Yau hypersurfaces in toric varieties
 J. Alg. Geom
, 1994
"... We consider families F(∆) consisting of complex (n − 1)dimensional projective algebraic compactifications of ∆regular affine hypersurfaces Zf defined by Laurent polynomials f with a fixed ndimensional Newton polyhedron ∆ in ndimensional algebraic torus T = (C ∗ ) n. If the family F(∆) defined by ..."
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Cited by 467 (20 self)
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We consider families F(∆) consisting of complex (n − 1)dimensional projective algebraic compactifications of ∆regular affine hypersurfaces Zf defined by Laurent polynomials f with a fixed ndimensional Newton polyhedron ∆ in ndimensional algebraic torus T = (C ∗ ) n. If the family F(∆) defined by a Newton polyhedron ∆ consists of (n − 1)dimensional CalabiYau varieties then the dual, or polar, polyhedron ∆ ∗ in the dual space defines another family F( ∆ ∗ ) of CalabiYau varieties, so that we obtain the remarkable duality between two different families of CalabiYau varieties. It is shown that the properties of this duality coincide with the properties of Mirror Symmetry discovered by physicists for CalabiYau 3folds. Our method allows to construct many new examples of CalabiYau 3folds and new candidates for their mirrors which were previously unknown for physicists. We conjecture that there exists an isomorphism between two conformal field theories corresponding to CalabiYau varieties from two families F(∆) and F( ∆ ∗). 1
Taverna: A tool for the composition and enactment of bioinformatics workflows
 Bioinformatics
, 2004
"... *To whom correspondence should be addressed. Running head: Composing and enacting workflows using Taverna Motivation: In silico experiments in bioinformatics involve the coordinated use of computational tools and information repositories. A growing number of these resources are being made available ..."
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Cited by 464 (8 self)
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*To whom correspondence should be addressed. Running head: Composing and enacting workflows using Taverna Motivation: In silico experiments in bioinformatics involve the coordinated use of computational tools and information repositories. A growing number of these resources are being made available with programmatic access in the form of Web services. Bioinformatics scientists will need to orchestrate these Web services in workflows as part of their analyses. Results: The Taverna project has developed a tool for the composition and enactment of bioinformatics workflows for the life sciences community. The tool includes a workbench application which provides a graphical user interface for the composition of workflows. These workflows are written in a new language called the Simple conceptual unified flow language (Scufl), where by each step within a workflow represents one atomic task. Two examples are used to illustrate the ease by with which in silico experiments can be represented as Scufl workflows using the workbench application. Availability: The Taverna workflow system is available as open source and can be downloaded with example Scufl workflows from
Results 1  10
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